Category Archives: Random

Change local user rights assignment from powershell

There are lots of “solutions” out there that just shell out to ntrights.exe or secedit or something else not powershell, and say “but powershell calls it so it counts!”  No it doesn’t.

There is no native NET or COM interface to manage local user rights assignment.  You have to use P/Invoke to call the API.  It’s a pain.  But I swiped some code from Roel van Lisdonk (http://www.roelvanlisdonk.nl/?p=1151) and got it working.  Looks like he got the code from Willy Denoyette (see http://www.pinvoke.net/default.aspx/advapi32.lsalookupsids) which I kept intact except for a minor error correction (it was missing a semicolon and wouldn’t compile). See http://www.hightechtalks.com/csharp/lsa-functions-276626.html for what seems to be Willy’s original source.

$LsaWrapper = @'
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Text;

namespace LsaSecurity
 {
     /*
      * LsaWrapper class credit: Willy Denoyette [MVP]
      * 
      * http://www.hightechtalks.com/csharp/lsa-functions-276626.html
      * 
      * Added support for:
      * 
      *      LsaLookupSids
      * 
      * for the purposes of providing a working example.
      * 
      * 
      * 
      */


     using System.Runtime.InteropServices;
     using System.Security;
     using System.Management;
     using System.Runtime.CompilerServices;
     using System.ComponentModel;

     using LSA_HANDLE = IntPtr;

     public class Program
     {
     public static void Main()
     {
         using (LsaWrapper lsaSec = new LsaWrapper())
         {
         string[] accounts = lsaSec.GetUsersWithPrivilege("SeNetworkLogonRight");

         }

     }
     }



    [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
     struct LSA_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES
     {
     internal int Length;
     internal IntPtr RootDirectory;
     internal IntPtr ObjectName;
     internal int Attributes;
     internal IntPtr SecurityDescriptor;
     internal IntPtr SecurityQualityOfService;
     }
     [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential, CharSet = CharSet.Unicode)]
     struct LSA_UNICODE_STRING
     {
     internal ushort Length;
     internal ushort MaximumLength;
     [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPWStr)]
     internal string Buffer;
     }

     sealed class Win32Sec
     {
     [DllImport("advapi32", CharSet = CharSet.Unicode, SetLastError = true),
     SuppressUnmanagedCodeSecurityAttribute]
     internal static extern uint LsaOpenPolicy(
     LSA_UNICODE_STRING[] SystemName,
     ref LSA_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES ObjectAttributes,
     int AccessMask,
     out IntPtr PolicyHandle
     );

     [DllImport("advapi32", CharSet = CharSet.Unicode, SetLastError = true),
     SuppressUnmanagedCodeSecurityAttribute]
     internal static extern uint LsaAddAccountRights(
     LSA_HANDLE PolicyHandle,
     IntPtr pSID,
     LSA_UNICODE_STRING[] UserRights,
     int CountOfRights
     );

     [DllImport("advapi32", CharSet = CharSet.Unicode, SetLastError = true),
         SuppressUnmanagedCodeSecurityAttribute]
     internal static extern uint LsaRemoveAccountRights(
     LSA_HANDLE PolicyHandle,
     IntPtr pSID,
     bool allRights,
     LSA_UNICODE_STRING[] UserRights,
     int CountOfRights
     );

     [DllImport("advapi32", CharSet = CharSet.Unicode, SetLastError = true),
         SuppressUnmanagedCodeSecurityAttribute]
     internal static extern uint LsaEnumerateAccountsWithUserRight(
         LSA_HANDLE PolicyHandle,
         LSA_UNICODE_STRING[] UserRights,
         out IntPtr EnumerationBuffer,
         out int CountReturned
     );

     [DllImport("advapi32", CharSet = CharSet.Unicode, SetLastError = true),
     SuppressUnmanagedCodeSecurityAttribute]
     internal static extern uint LsaLookupSids(
         LSA_HANDLE PolicyHandle,
         int count,
         IntPtr buffer,
         out LSA_HANDLE domainList,
         out LSA_HANDLE nameList
     );



    [DllImport("advapi32", CharSet = CharSet.Unicode, SetLastError = true),
     SuppressUnmanagedCodeSecurityAttribute]
     internal static extern int LsaLookupNames2(
     LSA_HANDLE PolicyHandle,
     uint Flags,
     uint Count,
     LSA_UNICODE_STRING[] Names,
     ref IntPtr ReferencedDomains,
     ref IntPtr Sids
     );



    [DllImport("advapi32")]
     internal static extern int LsaNtStatusToWinError(int NTSTATUS);

     [DllImport("advapi32")]
     internal static extern int LsaClose(IntPtr PolicyHandle);

     [DllImport("advapi32")]
     internal static extern int LsaFreeMemory(IntPtr Buffer);

     }

     public sealed class LsaWrapper : IDisposable
     {
     private bool _writeToConsole = false;

     [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
     struct LSA_TRUST_INFORMATION
     {
         internal LSA_UNICODE_STRING Name;
         internal IntPtr Sid;
     }
     [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
     struct LSA_TRANSLATED_SID2
     {
         internal SidNameUse Use;
         internal IntPtr Sid;
         internal int DomainIndex;
         uint Flags;
     }

     //[StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
     //struct LSA_REFERENCED_DOMAIN_LIST
     //{
     //    internal uint Entries;
     //    internal LSA_TRUST_INFORMATION Domains;
     //}
     // Commented by KaushalendraATgmail.com

     [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
     internal struct LSA_REFERENCED_DOMAIN_LIST
     {
         internal uint Entries;
         internal IntPtr Domains;
     }

     [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
     struct LSA_ENUMERATION_INFORMATION
     {
         internal LSA_HANDLE PSid;
     }

     [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
     struct LSA_SID
     {
         internal uint Sid;
     }

     [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
     struct LSA_TRANSLATED_NAME
     {
         internal SidNameUse Use;
         internal LSA_UNICODE_STRING Name;
         internal int DomainIndex;
     }

     enum SidNameUse : int
     {
         User = 1,
         Group = 2,
         Domain = 3,
         Alias = 4,
         KnownGroup = 5,
         DeletedAccount = 6,
         Invalid = 7,
         Unknown = 8,
         Computer = 9
     }

     enum Access : int
     {
         POLICY_READ = 0x20006,
         POLICY_ALL_ACCESS = 0x00F0FFF,
         POLICY_EXECUTE = 0X20801,
         POLICY_WRITE = 0X207F8
     }
     const uint STATUS_ACCESS_DENIED = 0xc0000022;
     const uint STATUS_INSUFFICIENT_RESOURCES = 0xc000009a;
     const uint STATUS_NO_MEMORY = 0xc0000017;

     IntPtr lsaHandle;

     public LsaWrapper()
         : this(null)
     { }
     // // local system if systemName is null
     public LsaWrapper(string systemName)
     {
         LSA_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES lsaAttr;
         lsaAttr.RootDirectory = IntPtr.Zero;
         lsaAttr.ObjectName = IntPtr.Zero;
         lsaAttr.Attributes = 0;
         lsaAttr.SecurityDescriptor = IntPtr.Zero;
         lsaAttr.SecurityQualityOfService = IntPtr.Zero;
         lsaAttr.Length = Marshal.SizeOf(typeof(LSA_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES));
         lsaHandle = IntPtr.Zero;
         LSA_UNICODE_STRING[] system = null;
         if (systemName != null)
         {
         system = new LSA_UNICODE_STRING[1];
         system[0] = InitLsaString(systemName);
         }

         uint ret = Win32Sec.LsaOpenPolicy(system, ref lsaAttr, (int)Access.POLICY_ALL_ACCESS, out lsaHandle);
         if (ret == 0)
         return;
         if (ret == STATUS_ACCESS_DENIED)
         {
         throw new UnauthorizedAccessException();
         }
         if ((ret == STATUS_INSUFFICIENT_RESOURCES) || (ret == STATUS_NO_MEMORY))
         {
         throw new OutOfMemoryException();
         }
         throw new Win32Exception(Win32Sec.LsaNtStatusToWinError((int)ret));
     }

     public string[] GetUsersWithPrivilege(string privilege)
     {
         LSA_UNICODE_STRING[] privileges = new LSA_UNICODE_STRING[1];
         privileges[0] = InitLsaString(privilege);

         IntPtr buffer;
         int count;
         uint ret =
         Win32Sec.LsaEnumerateAccountsWithUserRight(lsaHandle, privileges, out buffer, out count);

         if (ret != 0)
         {
         if (ret == STATUS_ACCESS_DENIED)
         {
             throw new UnauthorizedAccessException();
         }

         if (ret == STATUS_INSUFFICIENT_RESOURCES || ret == STATUS_NO_MEMORY)
         {
             throw new OutOfMemoryException();
         }

         throw new Win32Exception(Win32Sec.LsaNtStatusToWinError((int)ret));
         }

         LSA_ENUMERATION_INFORMATION[] lsaInfo = new LSA_ENUMERATION_INFORMATION[count];
         for (int i = 0, elemOffs = (int)buffer; i < count; i++)
         {
         lsaInfo[i] = (LSA_ENUMERATION_INFORMATION)Marshal.PtrToStructure((IntPtr)elemOffs, typeof(LSA_ENUMERATION_INFORMATION));
         elemOffs += Marshal.SizeOf(typeof(LSA_ENUMERATION_INFORMATION));
         }

         LSA_HANDLE domains;
         LSA_HANDLE names;
         ret = Win32Sec.LsaLookupSids(lsaHandle, lsaInfo.Length, buffer, out domains, out names);

         if (ret != 0)
         {
         if (ret == STATUS_ACCESS_DENIED)
         {
             throw new UnauthorizedAccessException();
         }

         if (ret == STATUS_INSUFFICIENT_RESOURCES || ret == STATUS_NO_MEMORY)
         {
             throw new OutOfMemoryException();
         }

         throw new Win32Exception(Win32Sec.LsaNtStatusToWinError((int)ret));
         }

         /*string[] retNames = new string[count];

         LSA_TRANSLATED_NAME[] lsaNames = new LSA_TRANSLATED_NAME[count];
         for (int i = 0, elemOffs = (int)names; i < count; i++)
         {
         lsaNames[i] = (LSA_TRANSLATED_NAME)Marshal.PtrToStructure((LSA_HANDLE)elemOffs, typeof(LSA_TRANSLATED_NAME));
         elemOffs += Marshal.SizeOf(typeof(LSA_TRANSLATED_NAME));

         LSA_UNICODE_STRING name = lsaNames[i].Name;
         retNames[i] = name.Buffer.Substring(0, name.Length / 2);
         }*/

         // Following code also fetches Domains and associates domains and usernames
         string[] retNames = new string[count];
         List currentDomain = new List();
         int domainCount = 0;

         LSA_TRANSLATED_NAME[] lsaNames = new LSA_TRANSLATED_NAME[count];
         for (int i = 0, elemOffs = (int)names; i < count; i++)
         {
         lsaNames[i] = (LSA_TRANSLATED_NAME)Marshal.PtrToStructure((LSA_HANDLE)elemOffs, typeof(LSA_TRANSLATED_NAME));
         elemOffs += Marshal.SizeOf(typeof(LSA_TRANSLATED_NAME));

         LSA_UNICODE_STRING name = lsaNames[i].Name;
         retNames[i] = name.Buffer.Substring(0, name.Length / 2);

         if (!currentDomain.Contains(lsaNames[i].DomainIndex))
         {
             domainCount = domainCount + 1;
             currentDomain.Add(lsaNames[i].DomainIndex);
         }

         }

         string[] domainPtrNames = new string[count];

         LSA_REFERENCED_DOMAIN_LIST[] lsaDomainNames = new LSA_REFERENCED_DOMAIN_LIST[count];

         for (int i = 0, elemOffs = (int)domains; i < count; i++)
         {
         lsaDomainNames[i] = (LSA_REFERENCED_DOMAIN_LIST)Marshal.PtrToStructure((LSA_HANDLE)elemOffs, typeof(LSA_REFERENCED_DOMAIN_LIST));
         elemOffs += Marshal.SizeOf(typeof(LSA_REFERENCED_DOMAIN_LIST));
         }

         LSA_TRUST_INFORMATION[] lsaDomainName = new LSA_TRUST_INFORMATION[count];
         string[] domainNames = new string[domainCount];

         for (int i = 0, elemOffs = (int)lsaDomainNames[i].Domains; i < domainCount; i++)
         {
         lsaDomainName[i] = (LSA_TRUST_INFORMATION)Marshal.PtrToStructure((LSA_HANDLE)elemOffs, typeof(LSA_TRUST_INFORMATION));
         elemOffs += Marshal.SizeOf(typeof(LSA_TRUST_INFORMATION));



        LSA_UNICODE_STRING tempDomain = lsaDomainName[i].Name;
         //if(tempDomain.Buffer != null)
         //{
             domainNames[i] = tempDomain.Buffer.Substring(0, tempDomain.Length / 2);
         //}
         }

         string[] domainUserName = new string[count];

         for (int i = 0; i  0x7ffe)
         throw new ArgumentException("String too long");
         LSA_UNICODE_STRING lus = new LSA_UNICODE_STRING();
         lus.Buffer = s;
         lus.Length = (ushort)(s.Length * sizeof(char));
         lus.MaximumLength = (ushort)(lus.Length + sizeof(char));

         // If unicode issues then do this instead of previous two line
         //lus.Length = (ushort)(s.Length * 2); // Unicode char is 2 bytes
         //lus.MaximumLength = (ushort)(lus.Length + 2)



        return lus;
     }

     public bool WriteToConsole
     {
         set { this._writeToConsole = value; }
     }
     }
    public class LsaWrapperCaller
    {
        public static void AddPrivileges(string account, string privilege)
        {
            using (LsaWrapper lsaWrapper = new LsaWrapper())
            {
                lsaWrapper.AddPrivileges(account, privilege);
            }
        }
        public static void RemovePrivileges(string account, string privilege)
        {
            using (LsaWrapper lsaWrapper = new LsaWrapper())
            {
                lsaWrapper.RemovePrivileges(account, privilege);
            }
        }
    }
 }
'@

Add-Type $LsaWrapper

$account = "computername\name" # Will default to local computer if you do not specify computername.  Can also accept domain name there.  Name is a user name or group name.
$right = "SeServiceLogonRight" # see http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/bb545671(v=vs.85).aspx for a list.
[LsaSecurity.LsaWrapperCaller]::RemovePrivileges($account,$right);

Updated: Get-BSSID.ps1 – programmatic access to available wireless networks

Looks like there was an issue in the way my WordPress client posted the script last time, but that post has been fixed. One would think that pasting HTML in a rich text view would HTMLEncode it, but nooooo.

Any way, I’ve updated the function with some more info and streamlined the functionality. Here are some of what’s been improved:

  • Output includes interface name and interface GUID for systems with multiple wireless NICs.
  • Improved string conversion for SSID.
  • Added bssid property for easy grouping and ordering (without this, you’d just see several networks with the same SSID but with no easy way to tell them apart).
  • Passes all properties (it’s the NativeWifi.Wlan+WlanBssEntry with a couple of note properties added).

In the future, I’ll be expanding this into a module and adding more functions.  As before, please note that this uses code from the Managed Wifi API project (http://managedwifi.codeplex.com/) though slightly modified to make it suitable for PowerShell.

Function Get-BSSID {
    $NativeWifiCode = @'
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.ComponentModel;
using System.Runtime.InteropServices;
using System.Net.NetworkInformation;
using System.Threading;
using System.Text;
using System.Diagnostics;

namespace NativeWifi
{
    public static class Wlan
    {
        #region P/Invoke API
        /// <summary>
        /// Defines various opcodes used to set and query parameters for an interface.
        /// </summary>
        /// <remarks>
        /// Corresponds to the native <c>WLAN_INTF_OPCODE</c> type.
        /// </remarks>
        public enum WlanIntfOpcode
        {
            /// <summary>
            /// Opcode used to set or query whether auto config is enabled.
            /// </summary>
            AutoconfEnabled = 1,
            /// <summary>
            /// Opcode used to set or query whether background scan is enabled.
            /// </summary>
            BackgroundScanEnabled,
            /// <summary>
            /// Opcode used to set or query the media streaming mode of the driver.
            /// </summary>
            MediaStreamingMode,
            /// <summary>
            /// Opcode used to set or query the radio state.
            /// </summary>
            RadioState,
            /// <summary>
            /// Opcode used to set or query the BSS type of the interface.
            /// </summary>
            BssType,
            /// <summary>
            /// Opcode used to query the state of the interface.
            /// </summary>
            InterfaceState,
            /// <summary>
            /// Opcode used to query information about the current connection of the interface.
            /// </summary>
            CurrentConnection,
            /// <summary>
            /// Opcose used to query the current channel on which the wireless interface is operating.
            /// </summary>
            ChannelNumber,
            /// <summary>
            /// Opcode used to query the supported auth/cipher pairs for infrastructure mode.
            /// </summary>
            SupportedInfrastructureAuthCipherPairs,
            /// <summary>
            /// Opcode used to query the supported auth/cipher pairs for ad hoc mode.
            /// </summary>
            SupportedAdhocAuthCipherPairs,
            /// <summary>
            /// Opcode used to query the list of supported country or region strings.
            /// </summary>
            SupportedCountryOrRegionStringList,
            /// <summary>
            /// Opcode used to set or query the current operation mode of the wireless interface.
            /// </summary>
            CurrentOperationMode,
            /// <summary>
            /// Opcode used to query driver statistics.
            /// </summary>
            Statistics = 0x10000101,
            /// <summary>
            /// Opcode used to query the received signal strength.
            /// </summary>
            RSSI,
            SecurityStart = 0x20010000,
            SecurityEnd = 0x2fffffff,
            IhvStart = 0x30000000,
            IhvEnd = 0x3fffffff
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Specifies the origin of automatic configuration (auto config) settings.
        /// </summary>
        /// <remarks>
        /// Corresponds to the native <c>WLAN_OPCODE_VALUE_TYPE</c> type.
        /// </remarks>
        public enum WlanOpcodeValueType
        {
            /// <summary>
            /// The auto config settings were queried, but the origin of the settings was not determined.
            /// </summary>
            QueryOnly = 0,
            /// <summary>
            /// The auto config settings were set by group policy.
            /// </summary>
            SetByGroupPolicy = 1,
            /// <summary>
            /// The auto config settings were set by the user.
            /// </summary>
            SetByUser = 2,
            /// <summary>
            /// The auto config settings are invalid.
            /// </summary>
            Invalid = 3
        }

        public const uint WLAN_CLIENT_VERSION_XP_SP2 = 1;
        public const uint WLAN_CLIENT_VERSION_LONGHORN = 2;

        [DllImport("wlanapi.dll")]
        public static extern int WlanOpenHandle(
            [In] UInt32 clientVersion,
            [In, Out] IntPtr pReserved,
            [Out] out UInt32 negotiatedVersion,
            [Out] out IntPtr clientHandle);

        [DllImport("wlanapi.dll")]
        public static extern int WlanCloseHandle(
            [In] IntPtr clientHandle,
            [In, Out] IntPtr pReserved);

        [DllImport("wlanapi.dll")]
        public static extern int WlanEnumInterfaces(
            [In] IntPtr clientHandle,
            [In, Out] IntPtr pReserved,
            [Out] out IntPtr ppInterfaceList);

        [DllImport("wlanapi.dll")]
        public static extern int WlanQueryInterface(
            [In] IntPtr clientHandle,
            [In, MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPStruct)] Guid interfaceGuid,
            [In] WlanIntfOpcode opCode,
            [In, Out] IntPtr pReserved,
            [Out] out int dataSize,
            [Out] out IntPtr ppData,
            [Out] out WlanOpcodeValueType wlanOpcodeValueType);

        [DllImport("wlanapi.dll")]
        public static extern int WlanSetInterface(
            [In] IntPtr clientHandle,
            [In, MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPStruct)] Guid interfaceGuid,
            [In] WlanIntfOpcode opCode,
            [In] uint dataSize,
            [In] IntPtr pData,
            [In, Out] IntPtr pReserved);

        /// <param name="pDot11Ssid">Not supported on Windows XP SP2: must be a <c>null</c> reference.</param>
        /// <param name="pIeData">Not supported on Windows XP SP2: must be a <c>null</c> reference.</param>
        [DllImport("wlanapi.dll")]
        public static extern int WlanScan(
            [In] IntPtr clientHandle,
            [In, MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPStruct)] Guid interfaceGuid,
            [In] IntPtr pDot11Ssid,
            [In] IntPtr pIeData,
            [In, Out] IntPtr pReserved);

        /// <summary>
        /// Defines flags passed to <see cref="WlanGetAvailableNetworkList"/>.
        /// </summary>
        [Flags]
        public enum WlanGetAvailableNetworkFlags
        {
            /// <summary>
            /// Include all ad-hoc network profiles in the available network list, including profiles that are not visible.
            /// </summary>
            IncludeAllAdhocProfiles = 0x00000001,
            /// <summary>
            /// Include all hidden network profiles in the available network list, including profiles that are not visible.
            /// </summary>
            IncludeAllManualHiddenProfiles = 0x00000002
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// The header of an array of information about available networks.
        /// </summary>
        [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
        internal struct WlanAvailableNetworkListHeader
        {
            /// <summary>
            /// Contains the number of <see cref=""/> items following the header.
            /// </summary>
            public uint numberOfItems;
            /// <summary>
            /// The index of the current item. The index of the first item is 0.
            /// </summary>
            public uint index;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Contains various flags for the network.
        /// </summary>
        [Flags]
        public enum WlanAvailableNetworkFlags
        {
            /// <summary>
            /// This network is currently connected.
            /// </summary>
            Connected = 0x00000001,
            /// <summary>
            /// There is a profile for this network.
            /// </summary>
            HasProfile = 0x00000002
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Contains information about an available wireless network.
        /// </summary>
        [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential, CharSet = CharSet.Unicode)]
        public struct WlanAvailableNetwork
        {
            /// <summary>
            /// Contains the profile name associated with the network.
            /// If the network doesn't have a profile, this member will be empty.
            /// If multiple profiles are associated with the network, there will be multiple entries with the same SSID in the visible network list. Profile names are case-sensitive.
            /// </summary>
            [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.ByValTStr, SizeConst = 256)]
            public string profileName;
            /// <summary>
            /// Contains the SSID of the visible wireless network.
            /// </summary>
            public Dot11Ssid dot11Ssid;
            /// <summary>
            /// Specifies whether the network is infrastructure or ad hoc.
            /// </summary>
            public Dot11BssType dot11BssType;
            /// <summary>
            /// Indicates the number of BSSIDs in the network.
            /// </summary>
            public uint numberOfBssids;
            /// <summary>
            /// Indicates whether the network is connectable or not.
            /// </summary>
            public bool networkConnectable;
            /// <summary>
            /// Indicates why a network cannot be connected to. This member is only valid when <see cref="networkConnectable"/> is <c>false</c>.
            /// </summary>
            public WlanReasonCode wlanNotConnectableReason;
            /// <summary>
            /// The number of PHY types supported on available networks.
            /// The maximum value of this field is 8. If more than 8 PHY types are supported, <see cref="morePhyTypes"/> must be set to <c>true</c>.
            /// </summary>
            private uint numberOfPhyTypes;
            /// <summary>
            /// Contains an array of <see cref="Dot11PhyType"/> values that represent the PHY types supported by the available networks.
            /// When <see cref="numberOfPhyTypes"/> is greater than 8, this array contains only the first 8 PHY types.
            /// </summary>
            [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.ByValArray, SizeConst = 8)]
            private Dot11PhyType[] dot11PhyTypes;
            /// <summary>
            /// Gets the <see cref="Dot11PhyType"/> values that represent the PHY types supported by the available networks.
            /// </summary>
            public Dot11PhyType[] Dot11PhyTypes
            {
                get
                {
                    Dot11PhyType[] ret = new Dot11PhyType[numberOfPhyTypes];
                    Array.Copy(dot11PhyTypes, ret, numberOfPhyTypes);
                    return ret;
                }
            }
            /// <summary>
            /// Specifies if there are more than 8 PHY types supported.
            /// When this member is set to <c>true</c>, an application must call <see cref="WlanClient.WlanInterface.GetNetworkBssList"/> to get the complete list of PHY types.
            /// <see cref="WlanBssEntry.phyId"/> contains the PHY type for an entry.
            /// </summary>
            public bool morePhyTypes;
            /// <summary>
            /// A percentage value that represents the signal quality of the network.
            /// This field contains a value between 0 and 100.
            /// A value of 0 implies an actual RSSI signal strength of -100 dbm.
            /// A value of 100 implies an actual RSSI signal strength of -50 dbm.
            /// You can calculate the RSSI signal strength value for values between 1 and 99 using linear interpolation.
            /// </summary>
            public uint wlanSignalQuality;
            /// <summary>
            /// Indicates whether security is enabled on the network.
            /// </summary>
            public bool securityEnabled;
            /// <summary>
            /// Indicates the default authentication algorithm used to join this network for the first time.
            /// </summary>
            public Dot11AuthAlgorithm dot11DefaultAuthAlgorithm;
            /// <summary>
            /// Indicates the default cipher algorithm to be used when joining this network.
            /// </summary>
            public Dot11CipherAlgorithm dot11DefaultCipherAlgorithm;
            /// <summary>
            /// Contains various flags for the network.
            /// </summary>
            public WlanAvailableNetworkFlags flags;
            /// <summary>
            /// Reserved for future use. Must be set to NULL.
            /// </summary>
            uint reserved;
        }

        [DllImport("wlanapi.dll")]
        public static extern int WlanGetAvailableNetworkList(
            [In] IntPtr clientHandle,
            [In, MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPStruct)] Guid interfaceGuid,
            [In] WlanGetAvailableNetworkFlags flags,
            [In, Out] IntPtr reservedPtr,
            [Out] out IntPtr availableNetworkListPtr);

        [Flags]
        public enum WlanProfileFlags
        {
            /// <remarks>
            /// The only option available on Windows XP SP2.
            /// </remarks>
            AllUser = 0,
            GroupPolicy = 1,
            User = 2
        }

        [DllImport("wlanapi.dll")]
        public static extern int WlanSetProfile(
            [In] IntPtr clientHandle,
            [In, MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPStruct)] Guid interfaceGuid,
            [In] WlanProfileFlags flags,
            [In, MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPWStr)] string profileXml,
            [In, Optional, MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPWStr)] string allUserProfileSecurity,
            [In] bool overwrite,
            [In] IntPtr pReserved,
            [Out] out WlanReasonCode reasonCode);

        /// <summary>
        /// Defines the access mask of an all-user profile.
        /// </summary>
        [Flags]
        public enum WlanAccess
        {
            /// <summary>
            /// The user can view profile permissions.
            /// </summary>
            ReadAccess = 0x00020000 | 0x0001,
            /// <summary>
            /// The user has read access, and the user can also connect to and disconnect from a network using the profile.
            /// </summary>
            ExecuteAccess = ReadAccess | 0x0020,
            /// <summary>
            /// The user has execute access and the user can also modify and delete permissions associated with a profile.
            /// </summary>
            WriteAccess = ReadAccess | ExecuteAccess | 0x0002 | 0x00010000 | 0x00040000
        }

        /// <param name="flags">Not supported on Windows XP SP2: must be a <c>null</c> reference.</param>
        [DllImport("wlanapi.dll")]
        public static extern int WlanGetProfile(
            [In] IntPtr clientHandle,
            [In, MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPStruct)] Guid interfaceGuid,
            [In, MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPWStr)] string profileName,
            [In] IntPtr pReserved,
            [Out] out IntPtr profileXml,
            [Out, Optional] out WlanProfileFlags flags,
            [Out, Optional] out WlanAccess grantedAccess);

        [DllImport("wlanapi.dll")]
        public static extern int WlanGetProfileList(
            [In] IntPtr clientHandle,
            [In, MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPStruct)] Guid interfaceGuid,
            [In] IntPtr pReserved,
            [Out] out IntPtr profileList
        );

        [DllImport("wlanapi.dll")]
        public static extern void WlanFreeMemory(IntPtr pMemory);

        [DllImport("wlanapi.dll")]
        public static extern int WlanReasonCodeToString(
            [In] WlanReasonCode reasonCode,
            [In] int bufferSize,
            [In, Out] StringBuilder stringBuffer,
            IntPtr pReserved
        );

        /// <summary>
        /// Specifies where the notification comes from.
        /// </summary>
        [Flags]
        public enum WlanNotificationSource
        {
            None = 0,
            /// <summary>
            /// All notifications, including those generated by the 802.1X module.
            /// </summary>
            All = 0X0000FFFF,
            /// <summary>
            /// Notifications generated by the auto configuration module.
            /// </summary>
            ACM = 0X00000008,
            /// <summary>
            /// Notifications generated by MSM.
            /// </summary>
            MSM = 0X00000010,
            /// <summary>
            /// Notifications generated by the security module.
            /// </summary>
            Security = 0X00000020,
            /// <summary>
            /// Notifications generated by independent hardware vendors (IHV).
            /// </summary>
            IHV = 0X00000040
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Indicates the type of an ACM (<see cref="WlanNotificationSource.ACM"/>) notification.
        /// </summary>
        /// <remarks>
        /// The enumeration identifiers correspond to the native <c>wlan_notification_acm_</c> identifiers.
        /// On Windows XP SP2, only the <c>ConnectionComplete</c> and <c>Disconnected</c> notifications are available.
        /// </remarks>
        public enum WlanNotificationCodeAcm
        {
            AutoconfEnabled = 1,
            AutoconfDisabled,
            BackgroundScanEnabled,
            BackgroundScanDisabled,
            BssTypeChange,
            PowerSettingChange,
            ScanComplete,
            ScanFail,
            ConnectionStart,
            ConnectionComplete,
            ConnectionAttemptFail,
            FilterListChange,
            InterfaceArrival,
            InterfaceRemoval,
            ProfileChange,
            ProfileNameChange,
            ProfilesExhausted,
            NetworkNotAvailable,
            NetworkAvailable,
            Disconnecting,
            Disconnected,
            AdhocNetworkStateChange
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Indicates the type of an MSM (<see cref="WlanNotificationSource.MSM"/>) notification.
        /// </summary>
        /// <remarks>
        /// The enumeration identifiers correspond to the native <c>wlan_notification_msm_</c> identifiers.
        /// </remarks>
        public enum WlanNotificationCodeMsm
        {
            Associating = 1,
            Associated,
            Authenticating,
            Connected,
            RoamingStart,
            RoamingEnd,
            RadioStateChange,
            SignalQualityChange,
            Disassociating,
            Disconnected,
            PeerJoin,
            PeerLeave,
            AdapterRemoval,
            AdapterOperationModeChange
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Contains information provided when registering for notifications.
        /// </summary>
        /// <remarks>
        /// Corresponds to the native <c>WLAN_NOTIFICATION_DATA</c> type.
        /// </remarks>
        [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
        public struct WlanNotificationData
        {
            /// <summary>
            /// Specifies where the notification comes from.
            /// </summary>
            /// <remarks>
            /// On Windows XP SP2, this field must be set to <see cref="WlanNotificationSource.None"/>, <see cref="WlanNotificationSource.All"/> or <see cref="WlanNotificationSource.ACM"/>.
            /// </remarks>
            public WlanNotificationSource notificationSource;
            /// <summary>
            /// Indicates the type of notification. The value of this field indicates what type of associated data will be present in <see cref="dataPtr"/>.
            /// </summary>
            public int notificationCode;
            /// <summary>
            /// Indicates which interface the notification is for.
            /// </summary>
            public Guid interfaceGuid;
            /// <summary>
            /// Specifies the size of <see cref="dataPtr"/>, in bytes.
            /// </summary>
            public int dataSize;
            /// <summary>
            /// Pointer to additional data needed for the notification, as indicated by <see cref="notificationCode"/>.
            /// </summary>
            public IntPtr dataPtr;

            /// <summary>
            /// Gets the notification code (in the correct enumeration type) according to the notification source.
            /// </summary>
            public object NotificationCode
            {
                get
                {
                    if (notificationSource == WlanNotificationSource.MSM)
                        return (WlanNotificationCodeMsm)notificationCode;
                    else if (notificationSource == WlanNotificationSource.ACM)
                        return (WlanNotificationCodeAcm)notificationCode;
                    else
                        return notificationCode;
                }

            }
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Defines the callback function which accepts WLAN notifications.
        /// </summary>
        public delegate void WlanNotificationCallbackDelegate(ref WlanNotificationData notificationData, IntPtr context);

        [DllImport("wlanapi.dll")]
        public static extern int WlanRegisterNotification(
            [In] IntPtr clientHandle,
            [In] WlanNotificationSource notifSource,
            [In] bool ignoreDuplicate,
            [In] WlanNotificationCallbackDelegate funcCallback,
            [In] IntPtr callbackContext,
            [In] IntPtr reserved,
            [Out] out WlanNotificationSource prevNotifSource);

        /// <summary>
        /// Defines connection parameter flags.
        /// </summary>
        [Flags]
        public enum WlanConnectionFlags
        {
            /// <summary>
            /// Connect to the destination network even if the destination is a hidden network. A hidden network does not broadcast its SSID. Do not use this flag if the destination network is an ad-hoc network.
            /// <para>If the profile specified by <see cref="WlanConnectionParameters.profile"/> is not <c>null</c>, then this flag is ignored and the nonBroadcast profile element determines whether to connect to a hidden network.</para>
            /// </summary>
            HiddenNetwork = 0x00000001,
            /// <summary>
            /// Do not form an ad-hoc network. Only join an ad-hoc network if the network already exists. Do not use this flag if the destination network is an infrastructure network.
            /// </summary>
            AdhocJoinOnly = 0x00000002,
            /// <summary>
            /// Ignore the privacy bit when connecting to the network. Ignoring the privacy bit has the effect of ignoring whether packets are encryption and ignoring the method of encryption used. Only use this flag when connecting to an infrastructure network using a temporary profile.
            /// </summary>
            IgnorePrivacyBit = 0x00000004,
            /// <summary>
            /// Exempt EAPOL traffic from encryption and decryption. This flag is used when an application must send EAPOL traffic over an infrastructure network that uses Open authentication and WEP encryption. This flag must not be used to connect to networks that require 802.1X authentication. This flag is only valid when <see cref="WlanConnectionParameters.wlanConnectionMode"/> is set to <see cref="WlanConnectionMode.TemporaryProfile"/>. Avoid using this flag whenever possible.
            /// </summary>
            EapolPassthrough = 0x00000008
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Specifies the parameters used when using the <see cref="WlanConnect"/> function.
        /// </summary>
        /// <remarks>
        /// Corresponds to the native <c>WLAN_CONNECTION_PARAMETERS</c> type.
        /// </remarks>
        [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
        public struct WlanConnectionParameters
        {
            /// <summary>
            /// Specifies the mode of connection.
            /// </summary>
            public WlanConnectionMode wlanConnectionMode;
            /// <summary>
            /// Specifies the profile being used for the connection.
            /// The contents of the field depend on the <see cref="wlanConnectionMode"/>:
            /// <list type="table">
            /// <listheader>
            /// <term>Value of <see cref="wlanConnectionMode"/></term>
            /// <description>Contents of the profile string</description>
            /// </listheader>
            /// <item>
            /// <term><see cref="WlanConnectionMode.Profile"/></term>
            /// <description>The name of the profile used for the connection.</description>
            /// </item>
            /// <item>
            /// <term><see cref="WlanConnectionMode.TemporaryProfile"/></term>
            /// <description>The XML representation of the profile used for the connection.</description>
            /// </item>
            /// <item>
            /// <term><see cref="WlanConnectionMode.DiscoverySecure"/>, <see cref="WlanConnectionMode.DiscoveryUnsecure"/> or <see cref="WlanConnectionMode.Auto"/></term>
            /// <description><c>null</c></description>
            /// </item>
            /// </list>
            /// </summary>
            [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPWStr)]
            public string profile;
            /// <summary>
            /// Pointer to a <see cref="Dot11Ssid"/> structure that specifies the SSID of the network to connect to.
            /// This field is optional. When set to <c>null</c>, all SSIDs in the profile will be tried.
            /// This field must not be <c>null</c> if <see cref="wlanConnectionMode"/> is set to <see cref="WlanConnectionMode.DiscoverySecure"/> or <see cref="WlanConnectionMode.DiscoveryUnsecure"/>.
            /// </summary>
            public IntPtr dot11SsidPtr;
            /// <summary>
            /// Pointer to a <see cref="Dot11BssidList"/> structure that contains the list of basic service set (BSS) identifiers desired for the connection.
            /// </summary>
            /// <remarks>
            /// On Windows XP SP2, must be set to <c>null</c>.
            /// </remarks>
            public IntPtr desiredBssidListPtr;
            /// <summary>
            /// A <see cref="Dot11BssType"/> value that indicates the BSS type of the network. If a profile is provided, this BSS type must be the same as the one in the profile.
            /// </summary>
            public Dot11BssType dot11BssType;
            /// <summary>
            /// Specifies ocnnection parameters.
            /// </summary>
            /// <remarks>
            /// On Windows XP SP2, must be set to 0.
            /// </remarks>
            public WlanConnectionFlags flags;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// The connection state of an ad hoc network.
        /// </summary>
        public enum WlanAdhocNetworkState
        {
            /// <summary>
            /// The ad hoc network has been formed, but no client or host is connected to the network.
            /// </summary>
            Formed = 0,
            /// <summary>
            /// A client or host is connected to the ad hoc network.
            /// </summary>
            Connected = 1
        }

        [DllImport("wlanapi.dll")]
        public static extern int WlanConnect(
            [In] IntPtr clientHandle,
            [In, MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPStruct)] Guid interfaceGuid,
            [In] ref WlanConnectionParameters connectionParameters,
            IntPtr pReserved);

        [DllImport("wlanapi.dll")]
        public static extern int WlanDeleteProfile(
            [In] IntPtr clientHandle,
            [In, MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPStruct)] Guid interfaceGuid,
            [In, MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPWStr)] string profileName,
            IntPtr reservedPtr
        );

        [DllImport("wlanapi.dll")]
        public static extern int WlanGetNetworkBssList(
            [In] IntPtr clientHandle,
            [In, MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPStruct)] Guid interfaceGuid,
            [In] IntPtr dot11SsidInt,
            [In] Dot11BssType dot11BssType,
            [In] bool securityEnabled,
            IntPtr reservedPtr,
            [Out] out IntPtr wlanBssList
        );

        [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
        internal struct WlanBssListHeader
        {
            internal uint totalSize;
            internal uint numberOfItems;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Contains information about a basic service set (BSS).
        /// </summary>
        [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
        public struct WlanBssEntry
        {
            /// <summary>
            /// Contains the SSID of the access point (AP) associated with the BSS.
            /// </summary>
            public Dot11Ssid dot11Ssid;
            /// <summary>
            /// The identifier of the PHY on which the AP is operating.
            /// </summary>
            public uint phyId;
            /// <summary>
            /// Contains the BSS identifier.
            /// </summary>
            [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.ByValArray, SizeConst = 6)]
            public byte[] dot11Bssid;
            /// <summary>
            /// Specifies whether the network is infrastructure or ad hoc.
            /// </summary>
            public Dot11BssType dot11BssType;
            public Dot11PhyType dot11BssPhyType;
            /// <summary>
            /// The received signal strength in dBm.
            /// </summary>
            public int rssi;
            /// <summary>
            /// The link quality reported by the driver. Ranges from 0-100.
            /// </summary>
            public uint linkQuality;
            /// <summary>
            /// If 802.11d is not implemented, the network interface card (NIC) must set this field to TRUE. If 802.11d is implemented (but not necessarily enabled), the NIC must set this field to TRUE if the BSS operation complies with the configured regulatory domain.
            /// </summary>
            public bool inRegDomain;
            /// <summary>
            /// Contains the beacon interval value from the beacon packet or probe response.
            /// </summary>
            public ushort beaconPeriod;
            /// <summary>
            /// The timestamp from the beacon packet or probe response.
            /// </summary>
            public ulong timestamp;
            /// <summary>
            /// The host timestamp value when the beacon or probe response is received.
            /// </summary>
            public ulong hostTimestamp;
            /// <summary>
            /// The capability value from the beacon packet or probe response.
            /// </summary>
            public ushort capabilityInformation;
            /// <summary>
            /// The frequency of the center channel, in kHz.
            /// </summary>
            public uint chCenterFrequency;
            /// <summary>
            /// Contains the set of data transfer rates supported by the BSS.
            /// </summary>
            public WlanRateSet wlanRateSet;
            /// <summary>
            /// Offset of the information element (IE) data blob.
            /// </summary>
            public uint ieOffset;
            /// <summary>
            /// Size of the IE data blob, in bytes.
            /// </summary>
            public uint ieSize;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Contains the set of supported data rates.
        /// </summary>
        [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
        public struct WlanRateSet
        {
            /// <summary>
            /// The length, in bytes, of <see cref="rateSet"/>.
            /// </summary>
            private uint rateSetLength;
            /// <summary>
            /// An array of supported data transfer rates.
            /// If the rate is a basic rate, the first bit of the rate value is set to 1.
            /// A basic rate is the data transfer rate that all stations in a basic service set (BSS) can use to receive frames from the wireless medium.
            /// </summary>
            [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.ByValArray, SizeConst = 126)]
            private ushort[] rateSet;

            public ushort[] Rates
            {
                get
                {
                    ushort[] rates = new ushort[rateSetLength / sizeof(ushort)];
                    Array.Copy(rateSet, rates, rates.Length);
                    return rates;
                }
            }

            /// <summary>
            /// CalculateS the data transfer rate in Mbps for an arbitrary supported rate.
            /// </summary>
            /// <param name="rate"></param>
            /// <returns></returns>
            public double GetRateInMbps(int rate)
            {
                return (rateSet[rate] & 0x7FFF) * 0.5;
            }
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Represents an error occuring during WLAN operations which indicate their failure via a <see cref="WlanReasonCode"/>.
        /// </summary>
        public class WlanException : Exception
        {
            private WlanReasonCode reasonCode;

            WlanException(WlanReasonCode reasonCode)
            {
                this.reasonCode = reasonCode;
            }

            /// <summary>
            /// Gets the WLAN reason code.
            /// </summary>
            /// <value>The WLAN reason code.</value>
            public WlanReasonCode ReasonCode
            {
                get { return reasonCode; }
            }

            /// <summary>
            /// Gets a message that describes the reason code.
            /// </summary>
            /// <value></value>
            /// <returns>The error message that explains the reason for the exception, or an empty string("").</returns>
            public override string Message
            {
                get
                {
                    StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder(1024);
                    if (WlanReasonCodeToString(reasonCode, sb.Capacity, sb, IntPtr.Zero) == 0)
                        return sb.ToString();
                    else
                        return string.Empty;
                }
            }
        }

        // TODO: .NET-ify the WlanReasonCode enum (naming convention + docs).

        /// <summary>
        /// Specifies reasons for a failure of a WLAN operation.
        /// </summary>
        /// <remarks>
        /// To get the WLAN API native reason code identifiers, prefix the identifiers with <c>WLAN_REASON_CODE_</c>.
        /// </remarks>
        public enum WlanReasonCode
        {
            Success = 0,
            // general codes
            UNKNOWN = 0x10000 + 1,

            RANGE_SIZE = 0x10000,
            BASE = 0x10000 + RANGE_SIZE,

            // range for Auto Config
            //
            AC_BASE = 0x10000 + RANGE_SIZE,
            AC_CONNECT_BASE = (AC_BASE + RANGE_SIZE / 2),
            AC_END = (AC_BASE + RANGE_SIZE - 1),

            // range for profile manager
            // it has profile adding failure reason codes, but may not have 
            // connection reason codes
            //
            PROFILE_BASE = 0x10000 + (7 * RANGE_SIZE),
            PROFILE_CONNECT_BASE = (PROFILE_BASE + RANGE_SIZE / 2),
            PROFILE_END = (PROFILE_BASE + RANGE_SIZE - 1),

            // range for MSM
            //
            MSM_BASE = 0x10000 + (2 * RANGE_SIZE),
            MSM_CONNECT_BASE = (MSM_BASE + RANGE_SIZE / 2),
            MSM_END = (MSM_BASE + RANGE_SIZE - 1),

            // range for MSMSEC
            //
            MSMSEC_BASE = 0x10000 + (3 * RANGE_SIZE),
            MSMSEC_CONNECT_BASE = (MSMSEC_BASE + RANGE_SIZE / 2),
            MSMSEC_END = (MSMSEC_BASE + RANGE_SIZE - 1),

            // AC network incompatible reason codes
            //
            NETWORK_NOT_COMPATIBLE = (AC_BASE + 1),
            PROFILE_NOT_COMPATIBLE = (AC_BASE + 2),

            // AC connect reason code
            //
            NO_AUTO_CONNECTION = (AC_CONNECT_BASE + 1),
            NOT_VISIBLE = (AC_CONNECT_BASE + 2),
            GP_DENIED = (AC_CONNECT_BASE + 3),
            USER_DENIED = (AC_CONNECT_BASE + 4),
            BSS_TYPE_NOT_ALLOWED = (AC_CONNECT_BASE + 5),
            IN_FAILED_LIST = (AC_CONNECT_BASE + 6),
            IN_BLOCKED_LIST = (AC_CONNECT_BASE + 7),
            SSID_LIST_TOO_LONG = (AC_CONNECT_BASE + 8),
            CONNECT_CALL_FAIL = (AC_CONNECT_BASE + 9),
            SCAN_CALL_FAIL = (AC_CONNECT_BASE + 10),
            NETWORK_NOT_AVAILABLE = (AC_CONNECT_BASE + 11),
            PROFILE_CHANGED_OR_DELETED = (AC_CONNECT_BASE + 12),
            KEY_MISMATCH = (AC_CONNECT_BASE + 13),
            USER_NOT_RESPOND = (AC_CONNECT_BASE + 14),

            // Profile validation errors
            //
            INVALID_PROFILE_SCHEMA = (PROFILE_BASE + 1),
            PROFILE_MISSING = (PROFILE_BASE + 2),
            INVALID_PROFILE_NAME = (PROFILE_BASE + 3),
            INVALID_PROFILE_TYPE = (PROFILE_BASE + 4),
            INVALID_PHY_TYPE = (PROFILE_BASE + 5),
            MSM_SECURITY_MISSING = (PROFILE_BASE + 6),
            IHV_SECURITY_NOT_SUPPORTED = (PROFILE_BASE + 7),
            IHV_OUI_MISMATCH = (PROFILE_BASE + 8),
            // IHV OUI not present but there is IHV settings in profile
            IHV_OUI_MISSING = (PROFILE_BASE + 9),
            // IHV OUI is present but there is no IHV settings in profile
            IHV_SETTINGS_MISSING = (PROFILE_BASE + 10),
            // both/conflict MSMSec and IHV security settings exist in profile 
            CONFLICT_SECURITY = (PROFILE_BASE + 11),
            // no IHV or MSMSec security settings in profile
            SECURITY_MISSING = (PROFILE_BASE + 12),
            INVALID_BSS_TYPE = (PROFILE_BASE + 13),
            INVALID_ADHOC_CONNECTION_MODE = (PROFILE_BASE + 14),
            NON_BROADCAST_SET_FOR_ADHOC = (PROFILE_BASE + 15),
            AUTO_SWITCH_SET_FOR_ADHOC = (PROFILE_BASE + 16),
            AUTO_SWITCH_SET_FOR_MANUAL_CONNECTION = (PROFILE_BASE + 17),
            IHV_SECURITY_ONEX_MISSING = (PROFILE_BASE + 18),
            PROFILE_SSID_INVALID = (PROFILE_BASE + 19),
            TOO_MANY_SSID = (PROFILE_BASE + 20),

            // MSM network incompatible reasons
            //
            UNSUPPORTED_SECURITY_SET_BY_OS = (MSM_BASE + 1),
            UNSUPPORTED_SECURITY_SET = (MSM_BASE + 2),
            BSS_TYPE_UNMATCH = (MSM_BASE + 3),
            PHY_TYPE_UNMATCH = (MSM_BASE + 4),
            DATARATE_UNMATCH = (MSM_BASE + 5),

            // MSM connection failure reasons, to be defined
            // failure reason codes
            //
            // user called to disconnect
            USER_CANCELLED = (MSM_CONNECT_BASE + 1),
            // got disconnect while associating
            ASSOCIATION_FAILURE = (MSM_CONNECT_BASE + 2),
            // timeout for association
            ASSOCIATION_TIMEOUT = (MSM_CONNECT_BASE + 3),
            // pre-association security completed with failure
            PRE_SECURITY_FAILURE = (MSM_CONNECT_BASE + 4),
            // fail to start post-association security
            START_SECURITY_FAILURE = (MSM_CONNECT_BASE + 5),
            // post-association security completed with failure
            SECURITY_FAILURE = (MSM_CONNECT_BASE + 6),
            // security watchdog timeout
            SECURITY_TIMEOUT = (MSM_CONNECT_BASE + 7),
            // got disconnect from driver when roaming
            ROAMING_FAILURE = (MSM_CONNECT_BASE + 8),
            // failed to start security for roaming
            ROAMING_SECURITY_FAILURE = (MSM_CONNECT_BASE + 9),
            // failed to start security for adhoc-join
            ADHOC_SECURITY_FAILURE = (MSM_CONNECT_BASE + 10),
            // got disconnection from driver
            DRIVER_DISCONNECTED = (MSM_CONNECT_BASE + 11),
            // driver operation failed
            DRIVER_OPERATION_FAILURE = (MSM_CONNECT_BASE + 12),
            // Ihv service is not available
            IHV_NOT_AVAILABLE = (MSM_CONNECT_BASE + 13),
            // Response from ihv timed out
            IHV_NOT_RESPONDING = (MSM_CONNECT_BASE + 14),
            // Timed out waiting for driver to disconnect
            DISCONNECT_TIMEOUT = (MSM_CONNECT_BASE + 15),
            // An internal error prevented the operation from being completed.
            INTERNAL_FAILURE = (MSM_CONNECT_BASE + 16),
            // UI Request timed out.
            UI_REQUEST_TIMEOUT = (MSM_CONNECT_BASE + 17),
            // Roaming too often, post security is not completed after 5 times.
            TOO_MANY_SECURITY_ATTEMPTS = (MSM_CONNECT_BASE + 18),

            // MSMSEC reason codes
            //

            MSMSEC_MIN = MSMSEC_BASE,

            // Key index specified is not valid
            MSMSEC_PROFILE_INVALID_KEY_INDEX = (MSMSEC_BASE + 1),
            // Key required, PSK present
            MSMSEC_PROFILE_PSK_PRESENT = (MSMSEC_BASE + 2),
            // Invalid key length
            MSMSEC_PROFILE_KEY_LENGTH = (MSMSEC_BASE + 3),
            // Invalid PSK length
            MSMSEC_PROFILE_PSK_LENGTH = (MSMSEC_BASE + 4),
            // No auth/cipher specified
            MSMSEC_PROFILE_NO_AUTH_CIPHER_SPECIFIED = (MSMSEC_BASE + 5),
            // Too many auth/cipher specified
            MSMSEC_PROFILE_TOO_MANY_AUTH_CIPHER_SPECIFIED = (MSMSEC_BASE + 6),
            // Profile contains duplicate auth/cipher
            MSMSEC_PROFILE_DUPLICATE_AUTH_CIPHER = (MSMSEC_BASE + 7),
            // Profile raw data is invalid (1x or key data)
            MSMSEC_PROFILE_RAWDATA_INVALID = (MSMSEC_BASE + 8),
            // Invalid auth/cipher combination
            MSMSEC_PROFILE_INVALID_AUTH_CIPHER = (MSMSEC_BASE + 9),
            // 802.1x disabled when it's required to be enabled
            MSMSEC_PROFILE_ONEX_DISABLED = (MSMSEC_BASE + 10),
            // 802.1x enabled when it's required to be disabled
            MSMSEC_PROFILE_ONEX_ENABLED = (MSMSEC_BASE + 11),
            MSMSEC_PROFILE_INVALID_PMKCACHE_MODE = (MSMSEC_BASE + 12),
            MSMSEC_PROFILE_INVALID_PMKCACHE_SIZE = (MSMSEC_BASE + 13),
            MSMSEC_PROFILE_INVALID_PMKCACHE_TTL = (MSMSEC_BASE + 14),
            MSMSEC_PROFILE_INVALID_PREAUTH_MODE = (MSMSEC_BASE + 15),
            MSMSEC_PROFILE_INVALID_PREAUTH_THROTTLE = (MSMSEC_BASE + 16),
            // PreAuth enabled when PMK cache is disabled
            MSMSEC_PROFILE_PREAUTH_ONLY_ENABLED = (MSMSEC_BASE + 17),
            // Capability matching failed at network
            MSMSEC_CAPABILITY_NETWORK = (MSMSEC_BASE + 18),
            // Capability matching failed at NIC
            MSMSEC_CAPABILITY_NIC = (MSMSEC_BASE + 19),
            // Capability matching failed at profile
            MSMSEC_CAPABILITY_PROFILE = (MSMSEC_BASE + 20),
            // Network does not support specified discovery type
            MSMSEC_CAPABILITY_DISCOVERY = (MSMSEC_BASE + 21),
            // Passphrase contains invalid character
            MSMSEC_PROFILE_PASSPHRASE_CHAR = (MSMSEC_BASE + 22),
            // Key material contains invalid character
            MSMSEC_PROFILE_KEYMATERIAL_CHAR = (MSMSEC_BASE + 23),
            // Wrong key type specified for the auth/cipher pair
            MSMSEC_PROFILE_WRONG_KEYTYPE = (MSMSEC_BASE + 24),
            // "Mixed cell" suspected (AP not beaconing privacy, we have privacy enabled profile)
            MSMSEC_MIXED_CELL = (MSMSEC_BASE + 25),
            // Auth timers or number of timeouts in profile is incorrect
            MSMSEC_PROFILE_AUTH_TIMERS_INVALID = (MSMSEC_BASE + 26),
            // Group key update interval in profile is incorrect
            MSMSEC_PROFILE_INVALID_GKEY_INTV = (MSMSEC_BASE + 27),
            // "Transition network" suspected, trying legacy 802.11 security
            MSMSEC_TRANSITION_NETWORK = (MSMSEC_BASE + 28),
            // Key contains characters which do not map to ASCII
            MSMSEC_PROFILE_KEY_UNMAPPED_CHAR = (MSMSEC_BASE + 29),
            // Capability matching failed at profile (auth not found)
            MSMSEC_CAPABILITY_PROFILE_AUTH = (MSMSEC_BASE + 30),
            // Capability matching failed at profile (cipher not found)
            MSMSEC_CAPABILITY_PROFILE_CIPHER = (MSMSEC_BASE + 31),

            // Failed to queue UI request
            MSMSEC_UI_REQUEST_FAILURE = (MSMSEC_CONNECT_BASE + 1),
            // 802.1x authentication did not start within configured time 
            MSMSEC_AUTH_START_TIMEOUT = (MSMSEC_CONNECT_BASE + 2),
            // 802.1x authentication did not complete within configured time
            MSMSEC_AUTH_SUCCESS_TIMEOUT = (MSMSEC_CONNECT_BASE + 3),
            // Dynamic key exchange did not start within configured time
            MSMSEC_KEY_START_TIMEOUT = (MSMSEC_CONNECT_BASE + 4),
            // Dynamic key exchange did not succeed within configured time
            MSMSEC_KEY_SUCCESS_TIMEOUT = (MSMSEC_CONNECT_BASE + 5),
            // Message 3 of 4 way handshake has no key data (RSN/WPA)
            MSMSEC_M3_MISSING_KEY_DATA = (MSMSEC_CONNECT_BASE + 6),
            // Message 3 of 4 way handshake has no IE (RSN/WPA)
            MSMSEC_M3_MISSING_IE = (MSMSEC_CONNECT_BASE + 7),
            // Message 3 of 4 way handshake has no Group Key (RSN)
            MSMSEC_M3_MISSING_GRP_KEY = (MSMSEC_CONNECT_BASE + 8),
            // Matching security capabilities of IE in M3 failed (RSN/WPA)
            MSMSEC_PR_IE_MATCHING = (MSMSEC_CONNECT_BASE + 9),
            // Matching security capabilities of Secondary IE in M3 failed (RSN)
            MSMSEC_SEC_IE_MATCHING = (MSMSEC_CONNECT_BASE + 10),
            // Required a pairwise key but AP configured only group keys
            MSMSEC_NO_PAIRWISE_KEY = (MSMSEC_CONNECT_BASE + 11),
            // Message 1 of group key handshake has no key data (RSN/WPA)
            MSMSEC_G1_MISSING_KEY_DATA = (MSMSEC_CONNECT_BASE + 12),
            // Message 1 of group key handshake has no group key
            MSMSEC_G1_MISSING_GRP_KEY = (MSMSEC_CONNECT_BASE + 13),
            // AP reset secure bit after connection was secured
            MSMSEC_PEER_INDICATED_INSECURE = (MSMSEC_CONNECT_BASE + 14),
            // 802.1x indicated there is no authenticator but profile requires 802.1x
            MSMSEC_NO_AUTHENTICATOR = (MSMSEC_CONNECT_BASE + 15),
            // Plumbing settings to NIC failed
            MSMSEC_NIC_FAILURE = (MSMSEC_CONNECT_BASE + 16),
            // Operation was cancelled by caller
            MSMSEC_CANCELLED = (MSMSEC_CONNECT_BASE + 17),
            // Key was in incorrect format 
            MSMSEC_KEY_FORMAT = (MSMSEC_CONNECT_BASE + 18),
            // Security downgrade detected
            MSMSEC_DOWNGRADE_DETECTED = (MSMSEC_CONNECT_BASE + 19),
            // PSK mismatch suspected
            MSMSEC_PSK_MISMATCH_SUSPECTED = (MSMSEC_CONNECT_BASE + 20),
            // Forced failure because connection method was not secure
            MSMSEC_FORCED_FAILURE = (MSMSEC_CONNECT_BASE + 21),
            // ui request couldn't be queued or user pressed cancel
            MSMSEC_SECURITY_UI_FAILURE = (MSMSEC_CONNECT_BASE + 22),

            MSMSEC_MAX = MSMSEC_END
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Contains information about connection related notifications.
        /// </summary>
        /// <remarks>
        /// Corresponds to the native <c>WLAN_CONNECTION_NOTIFICATION_DATA</c> type.
        /// </remarks>
        [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential, CharSet = CharSet.Unicode)]
        public struct WlanConnectionNotificationData
        {
            /// <remarks>
            /// On Windows XP SP 2, only <see cref="WlanConnectionMode.Profile"/> is supported.
            /// </remarks>
            public WlanConnectionMode wlanConnectionMode;
            /// <summary>
            /// The name of the profile used for the connection. Profile names are case-sensitive.
            /// </summary>
            [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.ByValTStr, SizeConst = 32)]
            public string profileName;
            /// <summary>
            /// The SSID of the association.
            /// </summary>
            public Dot11Ssid dot11Ssid;
            /// <summary>
            /// The BSS network type.
            /// </summary>
            public Dot11BssType dot11BssType;
            /// <summary>
            /// Indicates whether security is enabled for this connection.
            /// </summary>
            public bool securityEnabled;
            /// <summary>
            /// Indicates the reason for an operation failure.
            /// This field has a value of <see cref="WlanReasonCode.Success"/> for all connection-related notifications except <see cref="WlanNotificationCodeAcm.ConnectionComplete"/>.
            /// If the connection fails, this field indicates the reason for the failure.
            /// </summary>
            public WlanReasonCode wlanReasonCode;
            /// <summary>
            /// This field contains the XML presentation of the profile used for discovery, if the connection succeeds.
            /// </summary>
            [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.ByValTStr, SizeConst = 1)]
            public string profileXml;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Indicates the state of an interface.
        /// </summary>
        /// <remarks>
        /// Corresponds to the native <c>WLAN_INTERFACE_STATE</c> type.
        /// </remarks>
        public enum WlanInterfaceState
        {
            /// <summary>
            /// The interface is not ready to operate.
            /// </summary>
            NotReady = 0,
            /// <summary>
            /// The interface is connected to a network.
            /// </summary>
            Connected = 1,
            /// <summary>
            /// The interface is the first node in an ad hoc network. No peer has connected.
            /// </summary>
            AdHocNetworkFormed = 2,
            /// <summary>
            /// The interface is disconnecting from the current network.
            /// </summary>
            Disconnecting = 3,
            /// <summary>
            /// The interface is not connected to any network.
            /// </summary>
            Disconnected = 4,
            /// <summary>
            /// The interface is attempting to associate with a network.
            /// </summary>
            Associating = 5,
            /// <summary>
            /// Auto configuration is discovering the settings for the network.
            /// </summary>
            Discovering = 6,
            /// <summary>
            /// The interface is in the process of authenticating.
            /// </summary>
            Authenticating = 7
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Contains the SSID of an interface.
        /// </summary>
        public struct Dot11Ssid
        {
            /// <summary>
            /// The length, in bytes, of the <see cref="SSID"/> array.
            /// </summary>
            public uint SSIDLength;
            /// <summary>
            /// The SSID.
            /// </summary>
            [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.ByValArray, SizeConst = 32)]
            public byte[] SSID;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Defines an 802.11 PHY and media type.
        /// </summary>
        /// <remarks>
        /// Corresponds to the native <c>DOT11_PHY_TYPE</c> type.
        /// </remarks>
        public enum Dot11PhyType : uint
        {
            /// <summary>
            /// Specifies an unknown or uninitialized PHY type.
            /// </summary>
            Unknown = 0,
            /// <summary>
            /// Specifies any PHY type.
            /// </summary>
            Any = Unknown,
            /// <summary>
            /// Specifies a frequency-hopping spread-spectrum (FHSS) PHY. Bluetooth devices can use FHSS or an adaptation of FHSS.
            /// </summary>
            FHSS = 1,
            /// <summary>
            /// Specifies a direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) PHY.
            /// </summary>
            DSSS = 2,
            /// <summary>
            /// Specifies an infrared (IR) baseband PHY.
            /// </summary>
            IrBaseband = 3,
            /// <summary>
            /// Specifies an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) PHY. 802.11a devices can use OFDM.
            /// </summary>
            OFDM = 4,
            /// <summary>
            /// Specifies a high-rate DSSS (HRDSSS) PHY.
            /// </summary>
            HRDSSS = 5,
            /// <summary>
            /// Specifies an extended rate PHY (ERP). 802.11g devices can use ERP.
            /// </summary>
            ERP = 6,
            /// <summary>
            /// Specifies the start of the range that is used to define PHY types that are developed by an independent hardware vendor (IHV).
            /// </summary>
            IHV_Start = 0x80000000,
            /// <summary>
            /// Specifies the end of the range that is used to define PHY types that are developed by an independent hardware vendor (IHV).
            /// </summary>
            IHV_End = 0xffffffff
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Defines a basic service set (BSS) network type.
        /// </summary>
        /// <remarks>
        /// Corresponds to the native <c>DOT11_BSS_TYPE</c> type.
        /// </remarks>
        public enum Dot11BssType
        {
            /// <summary>
            /// Specifies an infrastructure BSS network.
            /// </summary>
            Infrastructure = 1,
            /// <summary>
            /// Specifies an independent BSS (IBSS) network.
            /// </summary>
            Independent = 2,
            /// <summary>
            /// Specifies either infrastructure or IBSS network.
            /// </summary>
            Any = 3
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Contains association attributes for a connection
        /// </summary>
        /// <remarks>
        /// Corresponds to the native <c>WLAN_ASSOCIATION_ATTRIBUTES</c> type.
        /// </remarks>
        [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
        public struct WlanAssociationAttributes
        {
            /// <summary>
            /// The SSID of the association.
            /// </summary>
            public Dot11Ssid dot11Ssid;
            /// <summary>
            /// Specifies whether the network is infrastructure or ad hoc.
            /// </summary>
            public Dot11BssType dot11BssType;
            /// <summary>
            /// The BSSID of the association.
            /// </summary>
            [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.ByValArray, SizeConst = 6)]
            public byte[] dot11Bssid;
            /// <summary>
            /// The physical type of the association.
            /// </summary>
            public Dot11PhyType dot11PhyType;
            /// <summary>
            /// The position of the <see cref="Dot11PhyType"/> value in the structure containing the list of PHY types.
            /// </summary>
            public uint dot11PhyIndex;
            /// <summary>
            /// A percentage value that represents the signal quality of the network.
            /// This field contains a value between 0 and 100.
            /// A value of 0 implies an actual RSSI signal strength of -100 dbm.
            /// A value of 100 implies an actual RSSI signal strength of -50 dbm.
            /// You can calculate the RSSI signal strength value for values between 1 and 99 using linear interpolation.
            /// </summary>
            public uint wlanSignalQuality;
            /// <summary>
            /// The receiving rate of the association.
            /// </summary>
            public uint rxRate;
            /// <summary>
            /// The transmission rate of the association.
            /// </summary>
            public uint txRate;

            /// <summary>
            /// Gets the BSSID of the associated access point.
            /// </summary>
            /// <value>The BSSID.</value>
            public PhysicalAddress Dot11Bssid
            {
                get { return new PhysicalAddress(dot11Bssid); }
            }
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Defines the mode of connection.
        /// </summary>
        /// <remarks>
        /// Corresponds to the native <c>WLAN_CONNECTION_MODE</c> type.
        /// </remarks>
        public enum WlanConnectionMode
        {
            /// <summary>
            /// A profile will be used to make the connection.
            /// </summary>
            Profile = 0,
            /// <summary>
            /// A temporary profile will be used to make the connection.
            /// </summary>
            TemporaryProfile,
            /// <summary>
            /// Secure discovery will be used to make the connection.
            /// </summary>
            DiscoverySecure,
            /// <summary>
            /// Unsecure discovery will be used to make the connection.
            /// </summary>
            DiscoveryUnsecure,
            /// <summary>
            /// A connection will be made automatically, generally using a persistent profile.
            /// </summary>
            Auto,
            /// <summary>
            /// Not used.
            /// </summary>
            Invalid
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Defines a wireless LAN authentication algorithm.
        /// </summary>
        /// <remarks>
        /// Corresponds to the native <c>DOT11_AUTH_ALGORITHM</c> type.
        /// </remarks>
        public enum Dot11AuthAlgorithm : uint
        {
            /// <summary>
            /// Specifies an IEEE 802.11 Open System authentication algorithm.
            /// </summary>
            IEEE80211_Open = 1,
            /// <summary>
            /// Specifies an 802.11 Shared Key authentication algorithm that requires the use of a pre-shared Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) key for the 802.11 authentication.
            /// </summary>
            IEEE80211_SharedKey = 2,
            /// <summary>
            /// Specifies a Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) algorithm. IEEE 802.1X port authentication is performed by the supplicant, authenticator, and authentication server. Cipher keys are dynamically derived through the authentication process.
            /// <para>This algorithm is valid only for BSS types of <see cref="Dot11BssType.Infrastructure"/>.</para>
            /// <para>When the WPA algorithm is enabled, the 802.11 station will associate only with an access point whose beacon or probe responses contain the authentication suite of type 1 (802.1X) within the WPA information element (IE).</para>
            /// </summary>
            WPA = 3,
            /// <summary>
            /// Specifies a WPA algorithm that uses preshared keys (PSK). IEEE 802.1X port authentication is performed by the supplicant and authenticator. Cipher keys are dynamically derived through a preshared key that is used on both the supplicant and authenticator.
            /// <para>This algorithm is valid only for BSS types of <see cref="Dot11BssType.Infrastructure"/>.</para>
            /// <para>When the WPA PSK algorithm is enabled, the 802.11 station will associate only with an access point whose beacon or probe responses contain the authentication suite of type 2 (preshared key) within the WPA IE.</para>
            /// </summary>
            WPA_PSK = 4,
            /// <summary>
            /// This value is not supported.
            /// </summary>
            WPA_None = 5,
            /// <summary>
            /// Specifies an 802.11i Robust Security Network Association (RSNA) algorithm. WPA2 is one such algorithm. IEEE 802.1X port authentication is performed by the supplicant, authenticator, and authentication server. Cipher keys are dynamically derived through the authentication process.
            /// <para>This algorithm is valid only for BSS types of <see cref="Dot11BssType.Infrastructure"/>.</para>
            /// <para>When the RSNA algorithm is enabled, the 802.11 station will associate only with an access point whose beacon or probe responses contain the authentication suite of type 1 (802.1X) within the RSN IE.</para>
            /// </summary>
            RSNA = 6,
            /// <summary>
            /// Specifies an 802.11i RSNA algorithm that uses PSK. IEEE 802.1X port authentication is performed by the supplicant and authenticator. Cipher keys are dynamically derived through a preshared key that is used on both the supplicant and authenticator.
            /// <para>This algorithm is valid only for BSS types of <see cref="Dot11BssType.Infrastructure"/>.</para>
            /// <para>When the RSNA PSK algorithm is enabled, the 802.11 station will associate only with an access point whose beacon or probe responses contain the authentication suite of type 2(preshared key) within the RSN IE.</para>
            /// </summary>
            RSNA_PSK = 7,
            /// <summary>
            /// Indicates the start of the range that specifies proprietary authentication algorithms that are developed by an IHV.
            /// </summary>
            /// <remarks>
            /// This enumerator is valid only when the miniport driver is operating in Extensible Station (ExtSTA) mode.
            /// </remarks>
            IHV_Start = 0x80000000,
            /// <summary>
            /// Indicates the end of the range that specifies proprietary authentication algorithms that are developed by an IHV.
            /// </summary>
            /// <remarks>
            /// This enumerator is valid only when the miniport driver is operating in Extensible Station (ExtSTA) mode.
            /// </remarks>
            IHV_End = 0xffffffff
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Defines a cipher algorithm for data encryption and decryption.
        /// </summary>
        /// <remarks>
        /// Corresponds to the native <c>DOT11_CIPHER_ALGORITHM</c> type.
        /// </remarks>
        public enum Dot11CipherAlgorithm : uint
        {
            /// <summary>
            /// Specifies that no cipher algorithm is enabled or supported.
            /// </summary>
            None = 0x00,
            /// <summary>
            /// Specifies a Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) algorithm, which is the RC4-based algorithm that is specified in the 802.11-1999 standard. This enumerator specifies the WEP cipher algorithm with a 40-bit cipher key.
            /// </summary>
            WEP40 = 0x01,
            /// <summary>
            /// Specifies a Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) algorithm, which is the RC4-based cipher suite that is based on the algorithms that are defined in the WPA specification and IEEE 802.11i-2004 standard. This cipher also uses the Michael Message Integrity Code (MIC) algorithm for forgery protection.
            /// </summary>
            TKIP = 0x02,
            /// <summary>
            /// Specifies an AES-CCMP algorithm, as specified in the IEEE 802.11i-2004 standard and RFC 3610. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is the encryption algorithm defined in FIPS PUB 197.
            /// </summary>
            CCMP = 0x04,
            /// <summary>
            /// Specifies a WEP cipher algorithm with a 104-bit cipher key.
            /// </summary>
            WEP104 = 0x05,
            /// <summary>
            /// Specifies a Robust Security Network (RSN) Use Group Key cipher suite. For more information about the Use Group Key cipher suite, refer to Clause 7.3.2.9.1 of the IEEE 802.11i-2004 standard.
            /// </summary>
            WPA_UseGroup = 0x100,
            /// <summary>
            /// Specifies a Wifi Protected Access (WPA) Use Group Key cipher suite. For more information about the Use Group Key cipher suite, refer to Clause 7.3.2.9.1 of the IEEE 802.11i-2004 standard.
            /// </summary>
            RSN_UseGroup = 0x100,
            /// <summary>
            /// Specifies a WEP cipher algorithm with a cipher key of any length.
            /// </summary>
            WEP = 0x101,
            /// <summary>
            /// Specifies the start of the range that is used to define proprietary cipher algorithms that are developed by an independent hardware vendor (IHV).
            /// </summary>
            IHV_Start = 0x80000000,
            /// <summary>
            /// Specifies the end of the range that is used to define proprietary cipher algorithms that are developed by an IHV.
            /// </summary>
            IHV_End = 0xffffffff
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Defines the security attributes for a wireless connection.
        /// </summary>
        /// <remarks>
        /// Corresponds to the native <c>WLAN_SECURITY_ATTRIBUTES</c> type.
        /// </remarks>
        [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
        public struct WlanSecurityAttributes
        {
            /// <summary>
            /// Indicates whether security is enabled for this connection.
            /// </summary>
            [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.Bool)]
            public bool securityEnabled;
            [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.Bool)]
            public bool oneXEnabled;
            /// <summary>
            /// The authentication algorithm.
            /// </summary>
            public Dot11AuthAlgorithm dot11AuthAlgorithm;
            /// <summary>
            /// The cipher algorithm.
            /// </summary>
            public Dot11CipherAlgorithm dot11CipherAlgorithm;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Defines the attributes of a wireless connection.
        /// </summary>
        /// <remarks>
        /// Corresponds to the native <c>WLAN_CONNECTION_ATTRIBUTES</c> type.
        /// </remarks>
        [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential, CharSet = CharSet.Unicode)]
        public struct WlanConnectionAttributes
        {
            /// <summary>
            /// The state of the interface.
            /// </summary>
            public WlanInterfaceState isState;
            /// <summary>
            /// The mode of the connection.
            /// </summary>
            public WlanConnectionMode wlanConnectionMode;
            /// <summary>
            /// The name of the profile used for the connection. Profile names are case-sensitive.
            /// </summary>
            [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.ByValTStr, SizeConst = 256)]
            public string profileName;
            /// <summary>
            /// The attributes of the association.
            /// </summary>
            public WlanAssociationAttributes wlanAssociationAttributes;
            /// <summary>
            /// The security attributes of the connection.
            /// </summary>
            public WlanSecurityAttributes wlanSecurityAttributes;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Contains information about a LAN interface.
        /// </summary>
        [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential, CharSet = CharSet.Unicode)]
        public struct WlanInterfaceInfo
        {
            /// <summary>
            /// The GUID of the interface.
            /// </summary>
            public Guid interfaceGuid;
            /// <summary>
            /// The description of the interface.
            /// </summary>
            [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.ByValTStr, SizeConst = 256)]
            public string interfaceDescription;
            /// <summary>
            /// The current state of the interface.
            /// </summary>
            public WlanInterfaceState isState;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// The header of the list returned by <see cref="WlanEnumInterfaces"/>.
        /// </summary>
        [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
        internal struct WlanInterfaceInfoListHeader
        {
            public uint numberOfItems;
            public uint index;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// The header of the list returned by <see cref="WlanGetProfileList"/>.
        /// </summary>
        [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
        internal struct WlanProfileInfoListHeader
        {
            public uint numberOfItems;
            public uint index;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Contains basic information about a profile.
        /// </summary>
        [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential, CharSet = CharSet.Unicode)]
        public struct WlanProfileInfo
        {
            /// <summary>
            /// The name of the profile. This value may be the name of a domain if the profile is for provisioning. Profile names are case-sensitive.
            /// </summary>
            [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.ByValTStr, SizeConst = 256)]
            public string profileName;
            /// <summary>
            /// Profile flags.
            /// </summary>
            public WlanProfileFlags profileFlags;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Flags that specifiy the miniport driver's current operation mode.
        /// </summary>
        [Flags]
        public enum Dot11OperationMode : uint
        {
            Unknown = 0x00000000,
            Station = 0x00000001,
            AP = 0x00000002,
            /// <summary>
            /// Specifies that the miniport driver supports the Extensible Station (ExtSTA) operation mode.
            /// </summary>
            ExtensibleStation = 0x00000004,
            /// <summary>
            /// Specifies that the miniport driver supports the Network Monitor (NetMon) operation mode.
            /// </summary>
            NetworkMonitor = 0x80000000
        }
        #endregion

        /// <summary>
        /// Helper method to wrap calls to Native WiFi API methods.
        /// If the method falls, throws an exception containing the error code.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="win32ErrorCode">The error code.</param>
        [DebuggerStepThrough]
        internal static void ThrowIfError(int win32ErrorCode)
        {
            if (win32ErrorCode != 0)
                throw new Win32Exception(win32ErrorCode);
        }
    }
	/// <summary>
	/// Represents a client to the Zeroconf (Native Wifi) service.
	/// </summary>
	/// <remarks>
	/// This class is the entrypoint to Native Wifi management. To manage WiFi settings, create an instance
	/// of this class.
	/// </remarks>
	public class WlanClient
	{
		/// <summary>
		/// Represents a Wifi network interface.
		/// </summary>
		public class WlanInterface
		{
			private WlanClient client;
			private Wlan.WlanInterfaceInfo info;

			#region Events
			/// <summary>
			/// Represents a method that will handle <see cref="WlanNotification"/> events.
			/// </summary>
			/// <param name="notifyData">The notification data.</param>
			public delegate void WlanNotificationEventHandler(Wlan.WlanNotificationData notifyData);

			/// <summary>
			/// Represents a method that will handle <see cref="WlanConnectionNotification"/> events.
			/// </summary>
			/// <param name="notifyData">The notification data.</param>
			/// <param name="connNotifyData">The notification data.</param>
			public delegate void WlanConnectionNotificationEventHandler(Wlan.WlanNotificationData notifyData, Wlan.WlanConnectionNotificationData connNotifyData);

			/// <summary>
			/// Represents a method that will handle <see cref="WlanReasonNotification"/> events.
			/// </summary>
			/// <param name="notifyData">The notification data.</param>
			/// <param name="reasonCode">The reason code.</param>
			public delegate void WlanReasonNotificationEventHandler(Wlan.WlanNotificationData notifyData, Wlan.WlanReasonCode reasonCode);

			/// <summary>
			/// Occurs when an event of any kind occurs on a WLAN interface.
			/// </summary>
			public event WlanNotificationEventHandler WlanNotification;

			/// <summary>
			/// Occurs when a WLAN interface changes connection state.
			/// </summary>
			public event WlanConnectionNotificationEventHandler WlanConnectionNotification;

			/// <summary>
			/// Occurs when a WLAN operation fails due to some reason.
			/// </summary>
			public event WlanReasonNotificationEventHandler WlanReasonNotification;

			#endregion

			#region Event queue
			private bool queueEvents;
			private AutoResetEvent eventQueueFilled = new AutoResetEvent(false);
			private Queue<object> eventQueue = new Queue<object>();

			private struct WlanConnectionNotificationEventData
			{
				public Wlan.WlanNotificationData notifyData;
				public Wlan.WlanConnectionNotificationData connNotifyData;
			}
			private struct WlanReasonNotificationData
			{
				public Wlan.WlanNotificationData notifyData;
				public Wlan.WlanReasonCode reasonCode;
			}
			#endregion

			internal WlanInterface(WlanClient client, Wlan.WlanInterfaceInfo info)
			{
				this.client = client;
				this.info = info;
			}

			/// <summary>
			/// Sets a parameter of the interface whose data type is <see cref="int"/>.
			/// </summary>
			/// <param name="opCode">The opcode of the parameter.</param>
			/// <param name="value">The value to set.</param>
			private void SetInterfaceInt(Wlan.WlanIntfOpcode opCode, int value)
			{
				IntPtr valuePtr = Marshal.AllocHGlobal(sizeof(int));
				Marshal.WriteInt32(valuePtr, value);
				try
				{
					Wlan.ThrowIfError(
						Wlan.WlanSetInterface(client.clientHandle, info.interfaceGuid, opCode, sizeof(int), valuePtr, IntPtr.Zero));
				}
				finally
				{
					Marshal.FreeHGlobal(valuePtr);
				}
			}

			/// <summary>
			/// Gets a parameter of the interface whose data type is <see cref="int"/>.
			/// </summary>
			/// <param name="opCode">The opcode of the parameter.</param>
			/// <returns>The integer value.</returns>
			private int GetInterfaceInt(Wlan.WlanIntfOpcode opCode)
			{
				IntPtr valuePtr;
				int valueSize;
				Wlan.WlanOpcodeValueType opcodeValueType;
				Wlan.ThrowIfError(
					Wlan.WlanQueryInterface(client.clientHandle, info.interfaceGuid, opCode, IntPtr.Zero, out valueSize, out valuePtr, out opcodeValueType));
				try
				{
					return Marshal.ReadInt32(valuePtr);
				}
				finally
				{
					Wlan.WlanFreeMemory(valuePtr);
				}
			}

			/// <summary>
			/// Gets or sets a value indicating whether this <see cref="WlanInterface"/> is automatically configured.
			/// </summary>
			/// <value><c>true</c> if "autoconf" is enabled; otherwise, <c>false</c>.</value>
			public bool Autoconf
			{
				get
				{
					return GetInterfaceInt(Wlan.WlanIntfOpcode.AutoconfEnabled) != 0;
				}
				set
				{
					SetInterfaceInt(Wlan.WlanIntfOpcode.AutoconfEnabled, value ? 1 : 0);
				}
			}

			/// <summary>
			/// Gets or sets the BSS type for the indicated interface.
			/// </summary>
			/// <value>The type of the BSS.</value>
			public Wlan.Dot11BssType BssType
			{
				get
				{
					return (Wlan.Dot11BssType) GetInterfaceInt(Wlan.WlanIntfOpcode.BssType);
				}
				set
				{
					SetInterfaceInt(Wlan.WlanIntfOpcode.BssType, (int)value);
				}
			}

			/// <summary>
			/// Gets the state of the interface.
			/// </summary>
			/// <value>The state of the interface.</value>
			public Wlan.WlanInterfaceState InterfaceState
			{
				get
				{
					return (Wlan.WlanInterfaceState)GetInterfaceInt(Wlan.WlanIntfOpcode.InterfaceState);
				}
			}

			/// <summary>
			/// Gets the channel.
			/// </summary>
			/// <value>The channel.</value>
			/// <remarks>Not supported on Windows XP SP2.</remarks>
			public int Channel
			{
				get
				{
					return GetInterfaceInt(Wlan.WlanIntfOpcode.ChannelNumber);
				}				
			}

			/// <summary>
			/// Gets the RSSI.
			/// </summary>
			/// <value>The RSSI.</value>
			/// <remarks>Not supported on Windows XP SP2.</remarks>
			public int RSSI
			{
				get
				{
					return GetInterfaceInt(Wlan.WlanIntfOpcode.RSSI);
				}
			}

			/// <summary>
			/// Gets the current operation mode.
			/// </summary>
			/// <value>The current operation mode.</value>
			/// <remarks>Not supported on Windows XP SP2.</remarks>
			public Wlan.Dot11OperationMode CurrentOperationMode
			{
				get
				{
					return (Wlan.Dot11OperationMode) GetInterfaceInt(Wlan.WlanIntfOpcode.CurrentOperationMode);
				}
			}

			/// <summary>
			/// Gets the attributes of the current connection.
			/// </summary>
			/// <value>The current connection attributes.</value>
			/// <exception cref="Win32Exception">An exception with code 0x0000139F (The group or resource is not in the correct state to perform the requested operation.) will be thrown if the interface is not connected to a network.</exception>
			public Wlan.WlanConnectionAttributes CurrentConnection
			{
				get
				{
					int valueSize;
					IntPtr valuePtr;
					Wlan.WlanOpcodeValueType opcodeValueType;
					Wlan.ThrowIfError(
						Wlan.WlanQueryInterface(client.clientHandle, info.interfaceGuid, Wlan.WlanIntfOpcode.CurrentConnection, IntPtr.Zero, out valueSize, out valuePtr, out opcodeValueType));
					try
					{
							return (Wlan.WlanConnectionAttributes)Marshal.PtrToStructure(valuePtr, typeof(Wlan.WlanConnectionAttributes));
					}
					finally
					{
						Wlan.WlanFreeMemory(valuePtr);
					}
				}
			}

			/// <summary>
			/// Requests a scan for available networks.
			/// </summary>
			/// <remarks>
			/// The method returns immediately. Progress is reported through the <see cref="WlanNotification"/> event.
			/// </remarks>
			public void Scan()
			{
				Wlan.ThrowIfError(
					Wlan.WlanScan(client.clientHandle, info.interfaceGuid, IntPtr.Zero, IntPtr.Zero, IntPtr.Zero));
			}

			/// <summary>
			/// Converts a pointer to a available networks list (header + entries) to an array of available network entries.
			/// </summary>
			/// <param name="bssListPtr">A pointer to an available networks list's header.</param>
			/// <returns>An array of available network entries.</returns>
			private Wlan.WlanAvailableNetwork[] ConvertAvailableNetworkListPtr(IntPtr availNetListPtr)
			{
				Wlan.WlanAvailableNetworkListHeader availNetListHeader = (Wlan.WlanAvailableNetworkListHeader)Marshal.PtrToStructure(availNetListPtr, typeof(Wlan.WlanAvailableNetworkListHeader));
				long availNetListIt = availNetListPtr.ToInt64() + Marshal.SizeOf(typeof(Wlan.WlanAvailableNetworkListHeader));
				Wlan.WlanAvailableNetwork[] availNets = new Wlan.WlanAvailableNetwork[availNetListHeader.numberOfItems];
				for (int i = 0; i < availNetListHeader.numberOfItems; ++i)
				{
					availNets[i] = (Wlan.WlanAvailableNetwork)Marshal.PtrToStructure(new IntPtr(availNetListIt), typeof(Wlan.WlanAvailableNetwork));
					availNetListIt += Marshal.SizeOf(typeof(Wlan.WlanAvailableNetwork));
				}
				return availNets;
			}

			/// <summary>
			/// Retrieves the list of available networks.
			/// </summary>
			/// <param name="flags">Controls the type of networks returned.</param>
			/// <returns>A list of the available networks.</returns>
			public Wlan.WlanAvailableNetwork[] GetAvailableNetworkList(Wlan.WlanGetAvailableNetworkFlags flags)
			{
				IntPtr availNetListPtr;
				Wlan.ThrowIfError(
					Wlan.WlanGetAvailableNetworkList(client.clientHandle, info.interfaceGuid, flags, IntPtr.Zero, out availNetListPtr));
				try
				{
					return ConvertAvailableNetworkListPtr(availNetListPtr);
				}
				finally
				{
					Wlan.WlanFreeMemory(availNetListPtr);
				}
			}

			/// <summary>
			/// Converts a pointer to a BSS list (header + entries) to an array of BSS entries.
			/// </summary>
			/// <param name="bssListPtr">A pointer to a BSS list's header.</param>
			/// <returns>An array of BSS entries.</returns>
			private Wlan.WlanBssEntry[] ConvertBssListPtr(IntPtr bssListPtr)
			{
				Wlan.WlanBssListHeader bssListHeader = (Wlan.WlanBssListHeader)Marshal.PtrToStructure(bssListPtr, typeof(Wlan.WlanBssListHeader));
				long bssListIt = bssListPtr.ToInt64() + Marshal.SizeOf(typeof(Wlan.WlanBssListHeader));
				Wlan.WlanBssEntry[] bssEntries = new Wlan.WlanBssEntry[bssListHeader.numberOfItems];
				for (int i=0; i<bssListHeader.numberOfItems; ++i)
				{
					bssEntries[i] = (Wlan.WlanBssEntry)Marshal.PtrToStructure(new IntPtr(bssListIt), typeof(Wlan.WlanBssEntry));
					bssListIt += Marshal.SizeOf(typeof(Wlan.WlanBssEntry));
				}
				return bssEntries;
			}

			/// <summary>
			/// Retrieves the basic service sets (BSS) list of all available networks.
			/// </summary>
			public Wlan.WlanBssEntry[] GetNetworkBssList()
			{
				IntPtr bssListPtr;
				Wlan.ThrowIfError(
					Wlan.WlanGetNetworkBssList(client.clientHandle, info.interfaceGuid, IntPtr.Zero, Wlan.Dot11BssType.Any, false, IntPtr.Zero, out bssListPtr));
				try
				{
					return ConvertBssListPtr(bssListPtr);
				}
				finally
				{
					Wlan.WlanFreeMemory(bssListPtr);
				}
			}

			/// <summary>
			/// Retrieves the basic service sets (BSS) list of the specified network.
			/// </summary>
			/// <param name="ssid">Specifies the SSID of the network from which the BSS list is requested.</param>
			/// <param name="bssType">Indicates the BSS type of the network.</param>
			/// <param name="securityEnabled">Indicates whether security is enabled on the network.</param>
			public Wlan.WlanBssEntry[] GetNetworkBssList(Wlan.Dot11Ssid ssid, Wlan.Dot11BssType bssType, bool securityEnabled)
			{
				IntPtr ssidPtr = Marshal.AllocHGlobal(Marshal.SizeOf(ssid));
				Marshal.StructureToPtr(ssid, ssidPtr, false);
				try
				{
					IntPtr bssListPtr;
					Wlan.ThrowIfError(
						Wlan.WlanGetNetworkBssList(client.clientHandle, info.interfaceGuid, ssidPtr, bssType, securityEnabled, IntPtr.Zero, out bssListPtr));
					try
					{
						return ConvertBssListPtr(bssListPtr);
					}
					finally
					{
						Wlan.WlanFreeMemory(bssListPtr);
					}
				}
				finally
				{
					Marshal.FreeHGlobal(ssidPtr);
				}
			}

			/// <summary>
			/// Connects to a network defined by a connection parameters structure.
			/// </summary>
			/// <param name="connectionParams">The connection paramters.</param>
			protected void Connect(Wlan.WlanConnectionParameters connectionParams)
			{
				Wlan.ThrowIfError(
					Wlan.WlanConnect(client.clientHandle, info.interfaceGuid, ref connectionParams, IntPtr.Zero));
			}

			/// <summary>
			/// Requests a connection (association) to the specified wireless network.
			/// </summary>
			/// <remarks>
			/// The method returns immediately. Progress is reported through the <see cref="WlanNotification"/> event.
			/// </remarks>
			public void Connect(Wlan.WlanConnectionMode connectionMode, Wlan.Dot11BssType bssType, string profile)
			{
				Wlan.WlanConnectionParameters connectionParams = new Wlan.WlanConnectionParameters();
				connectionParams.wlanConnectionMode = connectionMode;
				connectionParams.profile = profile;
				connectionParams.dot11BssType = bssType;
				connectionParams.flags = 0;
				Connect(connectionParams);
			}
			
			/// <summary>
			/// Connects (associates) to the specified wireless network, returning either on a success to connect
			/// or a failure.
			/// </summary>
			/// <param name="connectionMode"></param>
			/// <param name="bssType"></param>
			/// <param name="profile"></param>
			/// <param name="connectTimeout"></param>
			/// <returns></returns>
			public bool ConnectSynchronously(Wlan.WlanConnectionMode connectionMode, Wlan.Dot11BssType bssType, string profile, int connectTimeout)
			{
				queueEvents = true;
				try
				{
					Connect(connectionMode, bssType, profile);
					while (queueEvents && eventQueueFilled.WaitOne(connectTimeout, true))
					{
						lock (eventQueue)
						{
							while (eventQueue.Count != 0)
							{
								object e = eventQueue.Dequeue();
								if (e is WlanConnectionNotificationEventData)
								{
									WlanConnectionNotificationEventData wlanConnectionData = (WlanConnectionNotificationEventData)e;
									// Check if the conditions are good to indicate either success or failure.
									if (wlanConnectionData.notifyData.notificationSource == Wlan.WlanNotificationSource.ACM)
									{
										switch ((Wlan.WlanNotificationCodeAcm)wlanConnectionData.notifyData.notificationCode)
										{
											case Wlan.WlanNotificationCodeAcm.ConnectionComplete:
												if (wlanConnectionData.connNotifyData.profileName == profile)
													return true;
												break;
										}
									}
									break;
								}
							}
						}
					}
				}
				finally
				{
					queueEvents = false;
					eventQueue.Clear();
				}
				return false; // timeout expired and no "connection complete"
			}

			/// <summary>
			/// Connects to the specified wireless network.
			/// </summary>
			/// <remarks>
			/// The method returns immediately. Progress is reported through the <see cref="WlanNotification"/> event.
			/// </remarks>
			public void Connect(Wlan.WlanConnectionMode connectionMode, Wlan.Dot11BssType bssType, Wlan.Dot11Ssid ssid, Wlan.WlanConnectionFlags flags)
			{
				Wlan.WlanConnectionParameters connectionParams = new Wlan.WlanConnectionParameters();
				connectionParams.wlanConnectionMode = connectionMode;
				connectionParams.dot11SsidPtr = Marshal.AllocHGlobal(Marshal.SizeOf(ssid));
				Marshal.StructureToPtr(ssid, connectionParams.dot11SsidPtr, false);
				connectionParams.dot11BssType = bssType;
				connectionParams.flags = flags;
				Connect(connectionParams);
				Marshal.DestroyStructure(connectionParams.dot11SsidPtr, ssid.GetType());
				Marshal.FreeHGlobal(connectionParams.dot11SsidPtr);
			}

			/// <summary>
			/// Deletes a profile.
			/// </summary>
			/// <param name="profileName">
			/// The name of the profile to be deleted. Profile names are case-sensitive.
			/// On Windows XP SP2, the supplied name must match the profile name derived automatically from the SSID of the network. For an infrastructure network profile, the SSID must be supplied for the profile name. For an ad hoc network profile, the supplied name must be the SSID of the ad hoc network followed by <c>-adhoc</c>.
			/// </param>
			public void DeleteProfile(string profileName)
			{
				Wlan.ThrowIfError(
					Wlan.WlanDeleteProfile(client.clientHandle, info.interfaceGuid, profileName, IntPtr.Zero));
			}

			/// <summary>
			/// Sets the profile.
			/// </summary>
			/// <param name="flags">The flags to set on the profile.</param>
			/// <param name="profileXml">The XML representation of the profile. On Windows XP SP 2, special care should be taken to adhere to its limitations.</param>
			/// <param name="overwrite">If a profile by the given name already exists, then specifies whether to overwrite it (if <c>true</c>) or return an error (if <c>false</c>).</param>
			/// <returns>The resulting code indicating a success or the reason why the profile wasn't valid.</returns>
			public Wlan.WlanReasonCode SetProfile(Wlan.WlanProfileFlags flags, string profileXml, bool overwrite)
			{
				Wlan.WlanReasonCode reasonCode;
				Wlan.ThrowIfError(
						Wlan.WlanSetProfile(client.clientHandle, info.interfaceGuid, flags, profileXml, null, overwrite, IntPtr.Zero, out reasonCode));
				return reasonCode;
			}

			/// <summary>
			/// Gets the profile's XML specification.
			/// </summary>
			/// <param name="profileName">The name of the profile.</param>
			/// <returns>The XML document.</returns>
			public string GetProfileXml(string profileName)
			{
				IntPtr profileXmlPtr;
				Wlan.WlanProfileFlags flags;
				Wlan.WlanAccess access;
				Wlan.ThrowIfError(
					Wlan.WlanGetProfile(client.clientHandle, info.interfaceGuid, profileName, IntPtr.Zero, out profileXmlPtr, out flags,
					               out access));
				try
				{
					return Marshal.PtrToStringUni(profileXmlPtr);
				}
				finally
				{
					Wlan.WlanFreeMemory(profileXmlPtr);
				}
			}

			/// <summary>
			/// Gets the information of all profiles on this interface.
			/// </summary>
			/// <returns>The profiles information.</returns>
			public Wlan.WlanProfileInfo[] GetProfiles()
			{
				IntPtr profileListPtr;
				Wlan.ThrowIfError(
					Wlan.WlanGetProfileList(client.clientHandle, info.interfaceGuid, IntPtr.Zero, out profileListPtr));
				try
				{
					Wlan.WlanProfileInfoListHeader header = (Wlan.WlanProfileInfoListHeader) Marshal.PtrToStructure(profileListPtr, typeof(Wlan.WlanProfileInfoListHeader));
					Wlan.WlanProfileInfo[] profileInfos = new Wlan.WlanProfileInfo[header.numberOfItems];
					long profileListIterator = profileListPtr.ToInt64() + Marshal.SizeOf(header);
					for (int i=0; i<header.numberOfItems; ++i)
					{
						Wlan.WlanProfileInfo profileInfo = (Wlan.WlanProfileInfo) Marshal.PtrToStructure(new IntPtr(profileListIterator), typeof(Wlan.WlanProfileInfo));
						profileInfos[i] = profileInfo;
						profileListIterator += Marshal.SizeOf(profileInfo);
					}
					return profileInfos;
				}
				finally
				{
					Wlan.WlanFreeMemory(profileListPtr);
				}
			}

			internal void OnWlanConnection(Wlan.WlanNotificationData notifyData, Wlan.WlanConnectionNotificationData connNotifyData)
			{
				if (WlanConnectionNotification != null)
					WlanConnectionNotification(notifyData, connNotifyData);

				if (queueEvents)
				{
					WlanConnectionNotificationEventData queuedEvent = new WlanConnectionNotificationEventData();
					queuedEvent.notifyData = notifyData;
					queuedEvent.connNotifyData = connNotifyData;
					EnqueueEvent(queuedEvent);
				}
			}

			internal void OnWlanReason(Wlan.WlanNotificationData notifyData, Wlan.WlanReasonCode reasonCode)
			{
				if (WlanReasonNotification != null)
					WlanReasonNotification(notifyData, reasonCode);
				if (queueEvents)
				{
					WlanReasonNotificationData queuedEvent = new WlanReasonNotificationData();
					queuedEvent.notifyData = notifyData;
					queuedEvent.reasonCode = reasonCode;
					EnqueueEvent(queuedEvent);
				}
			}

			internal void OnWlanNotification(Wlan.WlanNotificationData notifyData)
			{
				if (WlanNotification != null)
					WlanNotification(notifyData);
			}

			/// <summary>
			/// Enqueues a notification event to be processed serially.
			/// </summary>
			private void EnqueueEvent(object queuedEvent)
			{
				lock (eventQueue)
					eventQueue.Enqueue(queuedEvent);
				eventQueueFilled.Set();
			}

			/// <summary>
			/// Gets the network interface of this wireless interface.
			/// </summary>
			/// <remarks>
			/// The network interface allows querying of generic network properties such as the interface's IP address.
			/// </remarks>
			public NetworkInterface NetworkInterface
			{
				get
				{
                    // Do not cache the NetworkInterface; We need it fresh
                    // each time cause otherwise it caches the IP information.
					foreach (NetworkInterface netIface in NetworkInterface.GetAllNetworkInterfaces())
					{
						Guid netIfaceGuid = new Guid(netIface.Id);
						if (netIfaceGuid.Equals(info.interfaceGuid))
						{
							return netIface;
						}
					}
                    return null;
				}
			}

			/// <summary>
			/// The GUID of the interface (same content as the <see cref="System.Net.NetworkInformation.NetworkInterface.Id"/> value).
			/// </summary>
			public Guid InterfaceGuid
			{
				get { return info.interfaceGuid; }
			}

			/// <summary>
			/// The description of the interface.
			/// This is a user-immutable string containing the vendor and model name of the adapter.
			/// </summary>
			public string InterfaceDescription
			{
				get { return info.interfaceDescription; }
			}

			/// <summary>
			/// The friendly name given to the interface by the user (e.g. "Local Area Network Connection").
			/// </summary>
			public string InterfaceName
			{
				get { return NetworkInterface.Name; }
			}
		}

		private IntPtr clientHandle;
		private uint negotiatedVersion;
		private Wlan.WlanNotificationCallbackDelegate wlanNotificationCallback;

		private Dictionary<Guid,WlanInterface> ifaces = new Dictionary<Guid,WlanInterface>();

		/// <summary>
		/// Creates a new instance of a Native Wifi service client.
		/// </summary>
		public WlanClient()
		{
			Wlan.ThrowIfError(
				Wlan.WlanOpenHandle(Wlan.WLAN_CLIENT_VERSION_XP_SP2, IntPtr.Zero, out negotiatedVersion, out clientHandle));
			try
			{
				Wlan.WlanNotificationSource prevSrc;
				wlanNotificationCallback = new Wlan.WlanNotificationCallbackDelegate(OnWlanNotification);
				Wlan.ThrowIfError(
					Wlan.WlanRegisterNotification(clientHandle, Wlan.WlanNotificationSource.All, false, wlanNotificationCallback, IntPtr.Zero, IntPtr.Zero, out prevSrc));
			}
			catch
			{
				Wlan.WlanCloseHandle(clientHandle, IntPtr.Zero);
				throw;
			}
		}

		~WlanClient()
		{
			Wlan.WlanCloseHandle(clientHandle, IntPtr.Zero);
		}

		private Wlan.WlanConnectionNotificationData? ParseWlanConnectionNotification(ref Wlan.WlanNotificationData notifyData)
		{
			int expectedSize = Marshal.SizeOf(typeof(Wlan.WlanConnectionNotificationData));
			if (notifyData.dataSize < expectedSize)
				return null;

			Wlan.WlanConnectionNotificationData connNotifyData =
				(Wlan.WlanConnectionNotificationData)
				Marshal.PtrToStructure(notifyData.dataPtr, typeof(Wlan.WlanConnectionNotificationData));
			if (connNotifyData.wlanReasonCode == Wlan.WlanReasonCode.Success)
			{
				IntPtr profileXmlPtr = new IntPtr(
					notifyData.dataPtr.ToInt64() +
					Marshal.OffsetOf(typeof(Wlan.WlanConnectionNotificationData), "profileXml").ToInt64());
				connNotifyData.profileXml = Marshal.PtrToStringUni(profileXmlPtr);
			}
			return connNotifyData;
		}

		private void OnWlanNotification(ref Wlan.WlanNotificationData notifyData, IntPtr context)
		{
			WlanInterface wlanIface = ifaces.ContainsKey(notifyData.interfaceGuid) ? ifaces[notifyData.interfaceGuid] : null;

			switch(notifyData.notificationSource)
			{
				case Wlan.WlanNotificationSource.ACM:
					switch((Wlan.WlanNotificationCodeAcm)notifyData.notificationCode)
					{
						case Wlan.WlanNotificationCodeAcm.ConnectionStart:
						case Wlan.WlanNotificationCodeAcm.ConnectionComplete:
						case Wlan.WlanNotificationCodeAcm.ConnectionAttemptFail:
						case Wlan.WlanNotificationCodeAcm.Disconnecting:
						case Wlan.WlanNotificationCodeAcm.Disconnected:
							Wlan.WlanConnectionNotificationData? connNotifyData = ParseWlanConnectionNotification(ref notifyData);
							if (connNotifyData.HasValue)
								if (wlanIface != null)
									wlanIface.OnWlanConnection(notifyData, connNotifyData.Value);
							break;
						case Wlan.WlanNotificationCodeAcm.ScanFail:
							{
								int expectedSize = Marshal.SizeOf(typeof (Wlan.WlanReasonCode));
								if (notifyData.dataSize >= expectedSize)
								{
									Wlan.WlanReasonCode reasonCode = (Wlan.WlanReasonCode) Marshal.ReadInt32(notifyData.dataPtr);
									if (wlanIface != null)
										wlanIface.OnWlanReason(notifyData, reasonCode);
								}
							}
							break;
					}
					break;
				case Wlan.WlanNotificationSource.MSM:
					switch((Wlan.WlanNotificationCodeMsm)notifyData.notificationCode)
					{
						case Wlan.WlanNotificationCodeMsm.Associating:
						case Wlan.WlanNotificationCodeMsm.Associated:
						case Wlan.WlanNotificationCodeMsm.Authenticating:
						case Wlan.WlanNotificationCodeMsm.Connected:
						case Wlan.WlanNotificationCodeMsm.RoamingStart:
						case Wlan.WlanNotificationCodeMsm.RoamingEnd:
						case Wlan.WlanNotificationCodeMsm.Disassociating:
						case Wlan.WlanNotificationCodeMsm.Disconnected:
						case Wlan.WlanNotificationCodeMsm.PeerJoin:
						case Wlan.WlanNotificationCodeMsm.PeerLeave:
						case Wlan.WlanNotificationCodeMsm.AdapterRemoval:
							Wlan.WlanConnectionNotificationData? connNotifyData = ParseWlanConnectionNotification(ref notifyData);
							if (connNotifyData.HasValue)
								if (wlanIface != null)
									wlanIface.OnWlanConnection(notifyData, connNotifyData.Value);
							break;
					}
					break;
			}
			
			if (wlanIface != null)
				wlanIface.OnWlanNotification(notifyData);
		}

		/// <summary>
		/// Gets the WLAN interfaces.
		/// </summary>
		/// <value>The WLAN interfaces.</value>
		public WlanInterface[] Interfaces
		{
			get
			{
				IntPtr ifaceList;
				Wlan.ThrowIfError(
					Wlan.WlanEnumInterfaces(clientHandle, IntPtr.Zero, out ifaceList));
				try
				{
					Wlan.WlanInterfaceInfoListHeader header =
						(Wlan.WlanInterfaceInfoListHeader) Marshal.PtrToStructure(ifaceList, typeof (Wlan.WlanInterfaceInfoListHeader));
					Int64 listIterator = ifaceList.ToInt64() + Marshal.SizeOf(header);
					WlanInterface[] interfaces = new WlanInterface[header.numberOfItems];
					List<Guid> currentIfaceGuids = new List<Guid>();
					for (int i = 0; i < header.numberOfItems; ++i)
					{
						Wlan.WlanInterfaceInfo info =
							(Wlan.WlanInterfaceInfo) Marshal.PtrToStructure(new IntPtr(listIterator), typeof (Wlan.WlanInterfaceInfo));
						listIterator += Marshal.SizeOf(info);
						WlanInterface wlanIface;
						currentIfaceGuids.Add(info.interfaceGuid);
						if (ifaces.ContainsKey(info.interfaceGuid))
							wlanIface = ifaces[info.interfaceGuid];
						else
							wlanIface = new WlanInterface(this, info);
						interfaces[i] = wlanIface;
						ifaces[info.interfaceGuid] = wlanIface;
					}

					// Remove stale interfaces
					Queue<Guid> deadIfacesGuids = new Queue<Guid>();
					foreach (Guid ifaceGuid in ifaces.Keys)
					{
						if (!currentIfaceGuids.Contains(ifaceGuid))
							deadIfacesGuids.Enqueue(ifaceGuid);
					}
					while(deadIfacesGuids.Count != 0)
					{
						Guid deadIfaceGuid = deadIfacesGuids.Dequeue();
						ifaces.Remove(deadIfaceGuid);
					}

					return interfaces;
				}
				finally
				{
					Wlan.WlanFreeMemory(ifaceList);
				}
			}
		}

		/// <summary>
		/// Gets a string that describes a specified reason code.
		/// </summary>
		/// <param name="reasonCode">The reason code.</param>
		/// <returns>The string.</returns>
		public string GetStringForReasonCode(Wlan.WlanReasonCode reasonCode)
		{
			StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder(1024); // the 1024 size here is arbitrary; the WlanReasonCodeToString docs fail to specify a recommended size
			Wlan.ThrowIfError(
				Wlan.WlanReasonCodeToString(reasonCode, sb.Capacity, sb, IntPtr.Zero));
			return sb.ToString();
		}
	}
}
'@

    Add-Type $NativeWifiCode

    $WlanClient = New-Object NativeWifi.WlanClient

    $WlanClient.Interfaces | 
    ForEach-Object {
        $_.GetNetworkBssList() | 
        Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name InterfaceName -Value $_.InterfaceName -PassThru |
        Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name InterfaceGuid -Value $_.InterfaceGuid -PassThru |
        Select-Object @{Name="Name";Expression={[string]::join("",[char[]]($_.dot11Ssid.SSID)).substring(0,$_.dot11ssid.SSIDlength)}},
            @{Name="bssid";Expression={ [string]::join(":",($_.dot11Bssid | ForEach-Object {"{0:X2}" -f $_})) }},
            *
    }
}

Fun Board Games

Blokus (I haven’t played this game)

(All-Time Favorite)

Get Blokus on Amazon.com $21.91

Blokus might have the simplest rules of any game on the market. Put your pieces on the board, touching your other pieces, but only on the corners. Try to get all your pieces on that board. That’s it! But you will forever be experimenting with new tricks and strategies to expand your territory while hemming in your opponents’. They’ve also come out with versions for specifically two-players, Blokus Duo, for youngsters, Blokus Junior, and for the square-adverse, Blokus Trigon with triangular pieces.

Carcassonne (played, would recommend as good intro/light game)

(All-Time Favorite)

Get Carcassonne on Amazon.com $19.28

Ever heard of a board game with no board? In Carcassonne, you and your fellow players actually build the board yourselves as you play the game, one high-quality cardboard tile at a time. By the time it’s over, you’ll have built such a pretty and unique arrangement of cities, roads, monasteries and fields that you may feel sad to put it away. Carcassonne is quite easy to learn with very quick and simple decisions to make with each turn. And with it’s many expansions the base game can be made exponentially replayable. Consider these two expansions if you’ve already given the base game… Carcassonne: Traders & Builders & Carcassonne: Inns & Cathedrals.

Ticket to Ride (haven’t played but I’ve heard a ton of people that love this game, especially here on OT, so probably a great one!)

(All-Time Favorite)

Get Ticket to Ride on Amazon.com $37.04

Ticket to Ride is a very popular game that has sold over 1 million copies worldwide. The game board is a map of the United States and Canada where the players compete to build train routes between major cities to score points. It’s easy to learn, fast to play, works great for any number of players 2 to 5, and is almost always a big hit with people who are new to board games. For a European flare try Ticket to Ride: Europe.

Also, there’s a new expansion that is due out before the end of the year that any TTR fans might want to check out! Ticket to Ride: Africa:

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Settlers of Catan (game that gets most people into the hobby, would definitely recommend)

(All-Time Favorite)

Get The Settlers of Catan on Amazon.com $33.60

Settlers of Catan is one of the most popular board games in the world. Each player takes the role of a hardy settler on the uninhabited island of Catan. The island you settle yields five types of raw materials used to build roads, settlements, cities, and armies. However, the resources you’ve got aren’t the resources you need. Trading with the other players is a big part of getting the right resources to build on the island. The player whose settlers are the most successful in colonizing the island wins the game.

Pandemic (great co-op game where everyone tries to save the world from a terrible pandemic, very cool)

(All-Time Favorite)

2009 Golden Geek Award for Best Family Game

Get Pandemic on Amazon.com $30.09

Four diseases have broken out in the world and it’s up to a team of specialists in various fields to find cures before mankind is wiped out. In this popular cooperative game you must work together with other players using your individual strengths and abilities to treat existing diseases and find cures before time runs out. Pandemic is your prescription for a great gaming experience like you’ve never had before! You can also add even more roles and more challenging diseases to the base game with Pandemic: On the Brink.

Battlestar Galactica (if someone’s a fan of the show, they will LOVE this game. Even if you’ve never seen the show it’s still a fantastic game)

(All-Time Favorite)

After the Cylon attack on the Colonies, the battered remnants of the human race are on the run, constantly searching for the next signpost on the road to Earth. They face the threat of Cylon attack from without, and treachery and crisis from within. Humanity must work together if they are to have any hope of survival…but how can they, when any of them may, in fact, be a Cylon agent?

Battlestar Galactica: The Board Game is an exciting game of mistrust, intrigue, and the struggle for survival. Based on the epic and widely-acclaimed Sci Fi Channel series, Battlestar Galactica: The Board Game puts players in the role of one of ten of their favorite characters from the show. Each playable character has their own abilities and weaknesses, and must all work together in order for humanity to have any hope of survival. However, one or more players in every game secretly side with the Cylons. Players must attempt to expose the traitor while fuel shortages, food contaminations, and political unrest threatens to tear the fleet apart.

Battlestar Galactica: The Board Game is a semi-cooperative game for 3-6 players ages 10 and up that can be played in 2-3 hours.

  • Players: 3 to 6
  • Time: 180 minutes
  • Ages: 14 and up
  • Availability: local game stores, online
  • Price: $36-45

Dominion (good card game with tons of expansions available, great for 2 or 3 people)

(All-Time Favorite)

2009 Golden Geek Awards for Game of the Year and Best Card Game

Get Dominion on Amazon.com $30.72

One of the most innovative and award winning games to emerge from the last couple of years! In Dominion, each player starts with an identical, very small deck of cards. In the center of the table is a selection of 10 other cards the players can "buy" as they can afford them. Through their selection of cards to buy, and how they play their hands as they draw them, the players construct their deck on the fly, striving for the most efficient path to the precious victory points by game end. The base game includes 25 sets of center cards and allows for hundreds of variations. There has also been additional expansions released adding to the fun… Dominion Family

New Dark Ages expansion is now out, check it out here

Escape: The Curse of the Temple (*NEW FOR 2012*)

(For older children/adults)

Escape is a new co-operative game played in real-time directed by a sound track. With all players rolling dice and taking actions simultaneously you have to keep your eye on your teammates and work together to explore a cursed temple. As you roll, you explore new rooms of the temple and sometimes find treasure and other times get cursed and held up. The simultaneous action and tension building time element create a fun challenge that will have you hanging on every die roll. If you’re up for the challenge of a real adventure consider picking this one up.

Alien Frontiers

(For teens & adults)

Get Alien Frontiers on Amazon.com $50.00

Do you have what it takes to be a deep space colonist? An alien frontier awaits the brave and daring! This new planet will be harsh, but if you have the skills to manage your resources, build a fleet, research alien life, and settle colonies, the world can be yours.

Roll and place your dice to gain advantages over your opponent and block them out of useful areas of the board. Use Alien Tech cards to manipulate your dice rolls and territory bonuses to break the rules. Steal resources, overtake territories, and do whatever it takes to get your colonies on the map first! Don’t dream it’ll be easy, though, because the other players will be trying to do the same thing.

Risk Legacy

(For teens & adults)

2012 Golden Geek Award for Most Innovative Game

Get Risk Legacy on Amazon.com $46.92

Remember Risk, the simple game of world domination where you build armies, roll dice and crush your enemies? This is Risk as you’ve never seen it before. Literally, because you make permanent changes to the board and the rules at the end of every game depending on how it unfolds. This unique idea means that the game grows along with you, and that your actions have much bigger impact beyond a single play session — they mark your game for life! What kind of legacy will you leave?

King of Tokyo (*NEW FOR 2012*)

(For all ages/party game)

2012 Golden Geek Awards for Best Children’s Game, Best Party Game, and Best Family Game

Get King of Tokyo on Amazon.com $31.03

In King of Tokyo, you play mutant monsters, gigantic robots, and aliens vying for the ultimate title in monsterdom, "King of Tokyo". Each turn you get a Yahtzee style three rolls of a set of 6 dice.

You decide with each roll which dice to keep and which to throw for more points, energy, health, or hits to your opponents. In order to win you must either destroy Tokyo by accumulating 20 destruction points or out last your fellow monsters in a bout to death.

This light-hearted, quick to learn, and quick to play game has you laughing with each roll and accomodates a whole family of players.

Pitchcar

(For all ages)

Get PitchCar on Amazon.com $58.32

PitchCar is a dexterity game where large, wooden, puzzle-like pieces are used to construct a race track that looks very similar to a slot car track when finished. But instead of using electrons, players use finger-flicks to send little round pucks around the track. This is a crowd-pleasing game to play and watch that few can resist.

The Resistance

(Party game)

Get The Resistance on Amazon.com $13.94

The Empire must fall. Our mission must succeed. By destroying their key bases, we will shatter Imperial strength and liberate our people. Yet spies have infiltrated our ranks, ready for sabotage. We must unmask them. In five nights we reshape destiny or die trying. We are the Resistance!

The Resistance is a party game of social deduction. It is designed for five to ten players, lasts about 30 minutes, and has no player elimination. The Resistance is inspired by Mafia/Werewolf, yet it is unique in its core mechanics which allow for more informed decisions, wilder player interaction, and no player elimination.

Players are either Resistance Operatives or Imperial Spies. For three to five rounds, they must depend on each other to carry out missions against the Empire. At the same time, they must try to deduce the other players’ identities and gain their trust. Each round begins with discussion. When ready, the Leader entrusts sets of Plans to a certain number of players (possibly including himself/herself). Everyone votes on whether or not to approve the assignment. Once an assignment passes, the chosen players secretly decide to Support or Sabotage the mission. Based on the results, the mission succeeds (Resistance win) or fails (Empire win). When a team wins three missions, they have won the game. If you’re a Resistance Operative, expose the Spies as soon as you can; if you’re an Imperial Spy, lie and think quickly to sow distrust and confusion — either way, loud accusations and laughter are guaranteed as deceit and betrayals slowly come to light!

Hive

(For two players)

Get Hive on Amazon.com $24.99

Looking for a quick strategic game? You’ve come to the right place with Hive! In this highly addictive game, the board takes shape as you and your opponent lay down your pieces. Each player controls an identical army of bugs, each with its own unique movement. Can you place and move your pieces so that you surround your opponent’s queen bee before he surrounds yours?

Hive comes in three versions: 1. Hive (original) 2. Hive: Carbon (monochromatic) and 3. Hive: Pocket (35% smaller). Both Hive: Carbon and Hive: Pocket include the Mosquito and Lady Bug expansion bugs.

Hive: Pocket’s size makes this version a great 2-player stocking stuffer!

Star Wars: X-Wing Miniatures Game

(For two players)

Get Star Wars: X-Wing Miniatures Game on Amazon.com $29.12

Star Wars: X-Wing Miniatures Game is a tactical ship-to-ship combat game in which players take control of powerful Rebel X-Wings and nimble Imperial TIE fighters, facing them against each other in fast-paced space combat. Featuring stunningly detailed and painted miniatures, the X-Wing Miniatures Game recreates exciting Star Wars space combat throughout its several included scenarios. Select your crew, plan your maneuvers, and complete your mission!

Even though this is listed as a 2-player game. With additional sets of the starter pack or even with some expansions you can quickly add players to the fight. Look for these additonal expansions… Star Wars: X-Wing Miniatures Game Family

JAB: Realtime Boxing

(For two players)

JAB is a strategic boxing card game unlike anything you’ve played before. In JAB, you get direct control over your boxer’s fists, providing an experience as close as possible to real boxing without getting punched in the face. JAB is real-time. There are no turns. You can play as fast as you want, but remember: playing smart is more important than playing fast.

Has a real learning curve, the first few games you’re telling yourself, "WHAT THE FUCK, WHAT DO I DO?!" but once you get the hang of it, it is freakin awesome, and INTENSE

Winning the game

To win the game, get a knockout by throwing staggering haymakers at your opponent until he eats canvas, or strategically win more rounds than your opponent by impressing the judges with your beautiful technique.

How is JAB different?

JAB re-invents the Real-time genre by slowing down gameplay and challenging you with strategic decisions. The innovative engine tests a player’s "strategic agility" by forcing constant quick decisions. It also measures your ability to calmly manage your focus, in a chaotic situation. The JAB engine is designed to be a develop-able skill, much like learning to play a fighting videogame, or even a real sport. Which also gives the game huge replayability.

Finally, you can beat up your friends and family, without the annoying assault charges and anger management classes!

JAB is a complete game, only one copy is required to play.

So how does the JAB engine work? (from a game design perspective)

The JAB engine can be broken down into a series of strategic real-time mini-games (mechanics), all running simultaneously. While focusing on all mini-games at once is almost impossible, all mini-games are equally important to win the game. A good player must not only be good at playing each of the mini-games, but also recognize which one he should be focusing on at any given time. A new player, much like a new boxer who steps into the ring for the first time, can easily feel overwhelmed and freeze up, priming his opponent for a knockout… so STAY CALM.

A Strategic Real-time Game? Pff.

No! It’s true! Every macro strategy or "style" in JAB, has a counter, like real boxing. See Boxing Styles and Techniques on Wikipedia for more info.

To counter a haymaker spammer, or slugger, a boxer must play like an outside-fighter, who focuses on counter-punching, and blocking, and points. An outside-fighter, like in real boxing, will be overcome by an in-fighter, who goes purely for combo points. An in-fighter boxer who is going for combos, will be knocked out by a slugger.

Every Boxer has a style, every style has a counter. What style are you?

Good Party Games

Dixit Odyssey

(Party game)

2011 Golden Geek Award for Best Party Game

Get Dixit Odyssey on Amazon.com $32.69

Dixit Odyssey is both a standalone game and an expansion for Jean-Louis Roubira’s Dixit, which won Germany’s Spiel des Jahres award in 2010.

Game play in Dixit Odyssey matches that of Dixit: Each turn one player is the storyteller. This player secretly chooses one card in his hand, then gives a word or sentence to describe this card – but not too obviously. Each other player chooses a card in hand that matches this word/sentence and gives it to the storyteller. The storyteller then lays out the cards, and all other players vote on which card belongs to the storyteller. If no one or everyone guesses the storyteller’s card, the storyteller receives no points and all players receive two; otherwise the storyteller and the correct guesser(s) each receive three points. Players score one point for each vote their image receives. Players refill their hands, and the next player becomes the storyteller. When the deck runs out, the player with the most points wins.

Dixit Odyssey contains 84 new cards, each with a unique image drawn by Pierô and colored by Marie Cardouat, artist of Dixit and Dixit 2. It also includes a folding game board, new rabbit scoring tokens, and a box large enough to hold all the Dixit cards released to date.

Dixit Odyssey includes enough components for up to twelve players and also has variant rules for team play and for new ways to play with the cards.

Also has a few expansions out: Dixit, Dixit 2, and Dixit Journey. All worth getting if you enjoy the game.

Telestrations

(Party game)

2010 Golden Geek Award for Best Party Game

Get Telestrations on Amazon.com $18.00

In this award winning party game, players sketch a word that’s dictated by the roll of a die, then pass their sketch on to the next player to guess what’s been drawn. That player then writes down what they think the word is, for the next player to draw a sketch of. Remember the classic game of Chinese Whispers? This is like that, but with pictures, and it’s proven to be very popular and lots of fun!

King of Tokyo (see above)

Reddit protip: Go on Craigslist and search for "moving", then low-ball every offer.

Didn’t see anything I wanted, but it makes sense.

I live in a college town and most student leases end on august 1st. Many of these people recently graduated and are flying to a new state, some are transferring colleges. Either way they need to get rid of stuff fast and have a deadline. This means a lot of people are selling a lot of stuff in the same window of time, which will bring down the asking price. Leave low-ball numbers with the sellers and tell them to call you if they change their mind. Sure enough desperate sellers will call you the day of their move.

Also its a good idea to check pawn shops about a week after the standard campus housing move out date

People also tend to just through away things out of laziness. You don’t even need to dumpster dive. Many times things such as mini-fridges are left right next to the dumpster. You can even just store them for a month and sell them to incoming freshmen

Got mold?

Stolen from Reddit

Got mold? It’s hard to get rid of. (i.e, the following is a summary of a recent nightmare I’ve endured). It can take weeks to remove all visible mold and prevent it from coming back.

First, solve the moisture problem; open windows more, install dehumidifiers or run air conditioner often, check plumbing / seals for leaks, check for entering rain water etc.

Get a cheap temperature/humidity meter or two and place them around your house. I got two that are solar powered (they run off indoor lights) for $15/ea at a hardware store. The relative humidity should be <55% for as much of the time as possible but preferably lower.

Then, clean away the mold with a HEPA filtered vacuum cleaner (on rough surfaces), or clean with bleach (hard surfaces, tiles etc) but this won’t KILL the mold.

Now, kill the mold spores which are remaining by buying some distilled (‘pure’) clove oil from Name Your Linkamazon or a health store. Put about 1/2 tablespoon of the oil into about half a cup of methylated spirits (or denatured spirits, different named in different places around the world) and stir. Dilute this to 1 liter with water and then wipe the moldy surface: WORKS AMAZING FOR MOLDY SHOWERS. Clove oil is an incredible thing!

Lastly, some things are essentially ruined by mold in most cases and cannot be treated; leather and carpets are two examples. Throw them out.